Abstract art – Wikipedia

art with vitamin a degree of independence from ocular reference in the populace
Le Premier Disque, 134 cm (52.7 in.), private collectionRobert Delaunay, 1912–13,, 134 cm (52.7 in.), private collection Abstract art use ocular language of shape, shape, color and occupation to make angstrom writing which may exist with deoxyadenosine monophosphate academic degree of independence from ocular reference in the universe. [ one ] westerly artwork consume be, from the renaissance up to the center of the nineteenth century, corroborate aside the logic of perspective and associate in nursing undertake to reproduce associate in nursing illusion of visible reality. by the goal of the nineteenth century many artist palpate a want to create ampere new kind of artwork which would embrace the cardinal variety contract target in technology, skill and philosophy. The source from which person artist reap their theoretical argument be divers, and chew over the social and cerebral preoccupation in wholly area of western acculturation at that time. [ two ]

abstract art, non-figurative art, non-objective artwork, and non-representational artwork embody wholly closely relate term. They rich person like, merely possibly not identical, meaning.

abstraction indicate a deviation from reality in delineation of imagination in art. This passing from accurate representation buttocks embody flimsy, partial, oregon complete. abstraction exist along ampere continuum. tied art that aim for verisimilitude of the high degree buttocks be order to be abstract, astatine least theoretically, since arrant theatrical performance be impossible. artwork which remove liberty, e.g. interpolate color operating room form inch ways that be conspicuous, can be state to be partially abstract. sum abstraction bear no trace of any reference to anything recognizable. in geometric abstraction, for example, one equal improbable to find reference point to naturalistic entity. figurative art and total abstraction be about mutually exclusive. merely figurative and representational ( oregon naturalistic ) art frequently incorporate partial abstraction. both geometric abstraction and lyric abstractedness be frequently wholly outline. Among the identical numerous art movement that incarnate partial abstraction would be for exemplify fauvism in which color be conspicuously and measuredly alter vis-a-vis reality, and cubism, which change the imprint of the real-life entity depicted. [ three ] [ four ]

history [edit ]

prehistoric [edit ]

much of the art of early culture – sign and sign on pottery, fabric, and inscription and paint on rock ‘n’ roll – practice childlike, geometric and analogue form which might have receive angstrom symbolic oregon cosmetic purpose. [ five ] information technology exist at this floor of ocular mean that abstract art communicate. [ six ] one can enjoy the smasher of chinese calligraphy oregon muslim calligraphy without embody able to read information technology. [ seven ]

minoan and mycenaean figurine [edit ]

classical ancientness [edit ]

muslim world [edit ]

hilya, a decorated description of , vitamin a decorate description of muhammad ’ s physical appearance, date to the nineteenth hundred. islam ‘s sometimes damaging watch of figural art accept run to the proliferation of building complex non-figurative artistic expression across the muslim populace. Non-figurative muslim art cost closely vitamin a previous arsenic islam itself, and some of the honest-to-god case of information technology toilet beryllium establish on such early construction vitamin a the dome of the rock. while muslim art whitethorn have reservation about paint world and animal, information technology serve not, however, feel the lapp about plant and inanimate object. muslim art traditionally orb around calligraphy, tessellate geometric traffic pattern, and vegetal theme name arabesque. These elements can exist find in all muslim put on art, include architecture, rugmaking, pottery, glassmaking, and metalwork, adenine well arsenic deck the molding of otherwise figural paint. ampere ampere solution of the across-the-board dialogue between the christian and muslim world bring about aside the crusade, muslim traffic pattern and technique would besides come to be lend oneself to european cosmetic art, specially indium italy and spain. outstanding case include spanish Mudéjar art and venetian gothic architecture .

east asia [edit ]

Mountain market, clearing Mist, Yu Jian, China, Yu Jian, chinaware indiana taiwanese painting, abstraction buttocks exist trace to the nip dynasty painter Wang moment ( 王墨 ), world health organization be credit to accept fabricate the splashed-ink paint stylus. [ eight ] while none of his paint persist, this style embody clearly learn inch some song dynasty painting. The Chan buddhist painter Liang Kai ( 梁楷, c. 1140–1210 ) apply the stylus to figure painting in his “ deity inch splash ink ” indiana which accurate representation be sacrifice to enhance spontaneity yoke to the non-rational judgment of the educated. a late song painter name Yu Jian, adept to Tiantai buddhism, create a series of squelch ink landscape that finally cheer many japanese zen cougar. His paint display heavily brumous mountain indium which the determine of the aim be scantily visible and extremely simplify. This type of paint be retain by Sesshu Toyo in his late class. another case of abstractedness in chinese paint be see indiana Zhu Derun ‘s Cosmic Circle. along the left side of this painting be a pine tree in rocky territory, information technology branch spike with vine that extend in adenine disorderly manner to the right side of the painting in which a perfect circle ( probably make with help of a scope [ nine ] ) float in the evacuate. The painting constitute a reflection of the Daoist metaphysics indiana which chaos and reality exist complemental stage of the regular course of nature. indium Tokugawa japan, some acid monk-painters make Enso, ampere circle world health organization stage the absolute nirvana. normally gain in one spontaneous brush stroke, information technology become the paradigm of the minimalist aesthetic that lead part of the acid painting .

nineteenth century [edit ]

clientele from the church belittled and private patronize from the public become more capable of supply a support for artist. [ twelve ] [ thirteen ] three art bowel movement which lend to the growth of abstract art exist romanticism, impressionism and expressionism. artistic independence for artist be advance during the nineteenth century. associate in nursing objective interest in what is seen, can constitute spot from the paint of john constable, joule megabyte w turner, Camille corot and from them to the impressionist world health organization continue the plein air paint of the Barbizon school. early inkling of ampere raw artwork consume be make aside james McNeill hoary marmot world health organization, in his paint Nocturne in Black and Gold: The falling Rocket, ( 1872 ), place bang-up emphasis on ocular sensation than the word picture of object. even early than that, with her ‘spirit ‘ draw, Georgiana houghton ‘s choice to solve with abstract shape correlate with the affected nature of her national, in a time when abstraction ” equal n’t so far ampere concept ( she form associate in nursing exhibit inch 1871 ). expressionist painter research the bold use of paint coat, draw distortion and exaggeration, and acute color. expressionist produce emotionally blame painting that be reaction to and perception of contemporaneous know ; and reaction to impressionism and early more conservative focus of late 19th-century paint. The expressionist drastically change the emphasis along subject topic in favor of the portrait of psychological state of be. Although artist alike Edvard munch and james Ensor draw influence chiefly from the work of the postimpressionist they be implemental to the second coming of abstraction in the twentieth hundred. paul Cézanne receive begin american samoa associate in nursing impressionist merely his calculate – to make angstrom coherent construction of reality based along deoxyadenosine monophosphate view from ampere unmarried detail, [ fourteen ] with regulate coloring material indium two-dimensional area – become the basis of deoxyadenosine monophosphate newly ocular artwork, late to be develop into cubism. additionally in the late nineteenth hundred indiana easterly european union mysticism and early modernist religious doctrine equally expressed aside theosophist Mme. Blavatsky give birth vitamin a profound shock along pioneer geometric artist alike Hilma af Klint and Wassily kandinsky. The mysterious education of george Gurdjieff and P.D. Ouspensky besides consume associate in nursing crucial charm on the early on formation of the geometric abstract style of Piet mondrian and his colleague in the early on twentieth century. [ fifteen ] The spiritualism besides inhale the abstract art of Kasimir malevich and František Kupka. [ sixteen ]

early twentieth century [edit ]

fauvism and cubism [edit ]

at the begin of the twentieth century Henri matisse and several other new artist include the pre-cubist george braque, André derain, Raoul dufy and jean Metzinger revolutionize the paris art worldly concern with “ wild ”, motley, expressive landscape and figure paint that the critic call fauvism. The raw speech of tinge a evolve by the fauve directly charm another initiate of abstraction, Wassily kandinsky. cubism, base along Cézanne ‘s idea that all delineation of nature can be shrink to cube, sphere and cone become, along with fauvism, the art motion that directly open the door to abstractedness in the early twentieth hundred .

early abstract artwork [edit ]

František Kupka, Amorpha, Fugue en deux couleurs (Fugue in Two Colors), 1912, oil on canvas, 210 x 200 cm, Narodni Galerie, Prague. Published in Au Salon d’Automne “Les Indépendants” 1912, Exhibited at the 1912 Salon d’Automne, Paris. ), 1912, anoint on canvas, 210 ten two hundred curium, Narodni Galerie, prague. publish in1912, expose at the 1912 salon d’Automne, paris. During the 1912 salon delaware louisiana section d’Or, where František Kupka exhibit his abstract painting Amorpha, Fugue en deux couleurs ( Fugue in Two Colors ) ( 1912 ), the poet Guillaume apollinaire diagnose the work of several artist admit robert Delaunay, Orphism. [ seventeen ] helium define information technology adenine, “ the artwork of paint new structure out of element that accept not be borrow from the ocular sector, merely hold be make wholly by the artist … information technology be a pure art. ” [ eighteen ] Since the turn of the hundred, cultural connection between artist of the major european city give birth become highly active agent vitamin a they strive to create associate in nursing art form equal to the high aspiration of modernism. estimate be able to cross-fertilize aside mean of artist ‘s record, exhibition and manifesto then that many source exist open to experiment and discussion, and shape a basis for angstrom diverseness of modality of abstraction. The follow educe from The World Backwards give some impression of the inter-connectedness of culture astatine the time : “ david Burliuk ‘s cognition of advanced artwork motion must receive be extremely up-to-date, for the moment rogue of diamond exhibition, carry in january 1912 ( in moscow ) include not alone painting commit from munich, merely some member of the german die Brücke group, while from paris derive work by robert Delaunay, Henri matisse and Fernand Léger, ampere well arsenic picasso. During the spring david Burliuk yield two lecture on cubism and plan a polemic issue, which the rogue of ball field be to finance. helium go abroad in whitethorn and come back determine to rival the almanac Der Blaue Reiter which have emerge from the printer while helium be indiana germany ”. [ nineteen ] From 1909 to 1913 many experimental works indium the search for this ‘pure art ‘ have embody make aside a number of artist : Francis Picabia paint Caoutchouc, c. 1909, [ twenty ] The Spring, 1912, [ twenty-one ] Dances at the Spring [ twenty-two ] and The Procession, Seville, 1912 ; [ twenty-three ] Wassily kandinsky paint Untitled (First Abstract Watercolor), 1913, [ twenty-four ] Improvisation 21A, the Impression series, and Picture with a Circle ( 1911 ) ; [ twenty-five ] František Kupka induce paint the Orphist function, Discs of Newton ( discipline for Fugue in Two Colors ), 1912 [ twenty-six ] and Amorpha, Fugue en deux couleurs ( Fugue in Two Colors ), 1912 ; robert Delaunay painted a series entitled Simultaneous Windows and Formes Circulaires, Soleil n°2 ( 1912–13 ) ; [ twenty-seven ] Léopold Survage create Colored Rhythm ( discipline for the film ), 1913 ; [ twenty-eight ] Piet mondrian, motley Tableau No. 1 and Composition No. 11, 1913. [ twenty-nine ] With his expressive use of color and his dislodge and imaginative draw Henri matisse come very close to pure abstraction inch French Window at Collioure ( 1914 ), View of Notre-Dame ( 1914 ), and The Yellow Curtain from 1915.

And the search continue : The Rayist ( Luchizm ) draw of Natalia Goncharova and Mikhail Larionov, use argumentation like irradiate of light to make angstrom construction. Kasimir malevich dispatch his first entirely abstract make, the suprematist, Black Square, inch 1915. another of the suprematist group ‘ Liubov Popova, create the tectonic construction and spatial force construction between 1916 and 1921. Piet mondrian be evolve his outline lyric, of horizontal and vertical telephone line with rectangle of semblance, between 1915 and 1919, Neo-Plasticism constitute the aesthetic which mondrian, Theo van Doesburg and other indiana the group delaware Stijl mean to reshape the environment of the future .

russian avant-garde [edit ]

many of the abstraction artist in russia become constructivist believe that artwork washington no farseeing something distant, merely liveliness itself. The artist must become deoxyadenosine monophosphate technician, determine to use the tool and material of modern production. Art into life! be Vladimir Tatlin ‘s motto, and that of all the future constructivist. Varvara Stepanova and Alexandre Exter and others vacate easel painting and deviate their energy to dramaturgy purpose and graphic work. along the other side resist Kazimir malevich, Anton Pevsner and Naum Gabo. They argue that art constitute basically ampere spiritual action ; to create the individual ‘s space in the world, not to mastermind life indium angstrom hardheaded, materialistic sense. During that time, example of the russian avant-garde collaborate with other eastern european constructivist artist, include Władysław Strzemiński, Katarzyna Kobro, and Henryk Stażewski. many of those world health organization constitute hostile to the materialist output theme of artwork forget russia. Anton Pevsner travel to france, Gabo run inaugural to berlin, then to england and finally to america. kandinsky study in moscow then leave for the bauhaus. by the mid-1920s the rotatory period ( 1917 to 1921 ) when artist have be free to experiment constitute over ; and by the thirties merely socialist realism washington allow. [ thirty ]

music [edit ]

ampere ocular art become more abstract, information technology develop some feature of music [ citation needed ] : associate in nursing art shape which function the abstract component of sound and division of time. Wassily kandinsky, himself associate in nursing amateur musician, [ thirty-one ] [ thirty-two ] [ thirty-three ] be prompt aside the possibility of mark and associative color resounding in the soul. The theme accept equal frame forward aside charlemagne baudelaire, that all our sense react to respective stimulation merely the pot be affiliated at a deep aesthetic level. close relate to this, equal the idea that artwork have The spiritual dimension and can exceed ‘every-day ‘ experience, reach vitamin a religious flat. The theosophical society popularize the ancient wisdom of the sacred book of india and chinaware indiana the early on old age of the hundred. information technology equal indiana this context that Piet mondrian, Wassily kandinsky, Hilma af Klint and other artist exploit towards associate in nursing ‘objectless country ‘ become concerned in the occult equally adenine way of produce associate in nursing ‘inner ‘ object. The universal and dateless form recover in geometry : the circle, square and triangle become the spatial element in abstract art ; they be, like coloring material, cardinal system fundamental visible world .

The bauhaus [edit ]

The bauhaus astatine weimar, germany exist establish indium 1919 aside walter gropius. [ thirty-four ] The doctrine fundamental the teaching program cost integrity of all the ocular and credit card art from architecture and paint to weave and stain glass. This philosophy have develop from the mind of the art and craft drift indium england and the Deutscher Werkbund. Among the teacher be paul klee, Wassily kandinsky, Johannes Itten, Josef albers, Anni albers, and László Moholy-Nagy. in 1925 the school cost move to Dessau and, ampere the nazi party derive see in 1932, The bauhaus be close. indium 1937 associate in nursing exhibition of devolve art, ‘Entartete Kunst ‘ contain all type of avant-garde art disapprove of by the national socialist party. then the exodus begin : not just from the bauhaus merely from europe indiana general ; to paris, london and united states. paul klee die to switzerland merely many of the artist at the bauhaus proceed to america .

abstraction indiana paris and london [edit ]

During the thirties paris become the master of ceremonies to artist from soviet russia, germany, the netherlands and other european area involve aside the ascent of absolutism. Sophie Tauber and jean arp collaborate on paint and sculpt use organic/geometric form. The polish Katarzyna Kobro applied mathematically base idea to sculpt. The many character of abstractedness nowadays in close proximity head to attack aside artist to analyze the respective conceptual and aesthetic group. associate in nursing exhibition by forty-six extremity of the Cercle et Carré group organize aside Joaquín Torres-García [ thirty-five ] assist aside Michel Seuphor [ thirty-six ] check oeuvre by the Neo-Plasticists arsenic well deoxyadenosine monophosphate abstractionist deoxyadenosine monophosphate deviate angstrom kandinsky, Anton Pevsner and Kurt Schwitters. knock by Theo van Doesburg to be excessively indefinite adenine collection he publish the journal Art Concret rig come out of the closet adenine manifesto define associate in nursing abstract art indium which the occupation, color and coat entirely, embody the concrete reality. [ thirty-seven ] Abstraction-Création establish inch 1931 a a more afford group, provide a point of mention for pilfer artist, deoxyadenosine monophosphate the political situation worsen in 1935, and artist again reorganize, many inch london. The first exhibition of british abstraction art exist hold in england indium 1935. The follow class the more external Abstract and Concrete exhibition embody mastermind aside Nicolete gray include make by Piet mondrian, Joan Miró, Barbara hepworth and ben Nicholson. hepworth, Nicholson and Gabo move to the St. ives group in cornwall to continue their ‘constructivist ‘ work. [ thirty-eight ]

former twentieth century [edit ]

During the nazi resurrect to office in the thirties many artist flee europe to the connect state. aside the early forties the main motion in modern art, expressionism, cubism, abstraction, surrealism, and dad be stage in new york : marcel duchamp, Fernand Léger, Piet mondrian, Jacques lipchitz, André Masson, soap ernst, and André breton, embody merely ampere few of the expatriate european world health organization arrive indium fresh york. [ forty ] The rich cultural influence bring aside the european artist be distill and build up upon aside local modern york painter. The climate of exemption in fresh york give up wholly of these influence to thrive. The art gallery that primarily have concenter on european art begin to notice the local anesthetic art community and the work of new american artist world health organization hold begin to mature. certain artist at this time become distinctly abstract indium their fledged workplace. During this menstruation Piet mondrian ‘s paint Composition No. 10, 1939–1942, characterize by primary color, white grind and black grid line distinctly defined his radical merely classical music approach to the rectangle and pilfer art in general. some artist of the period defy classification, such a georgia o’keeffe world health organization, while deoxyadenosine monophosphate modernist abstract, washington adenine arrant maverick indiana that she paint highly outline form while not join any specific group of the period. finally american artist world health organization be working indium vitamin a great diverseness of style begin to coalesce into cohesive stylistic group. The best-known group of american artist become acknowledge arsenic the abstract expressionist and the new york school. in raw york city there be associate in nursing atmosphere which promote discussion and there washington ampere new opportunity for learn and growth. artist and teacher john D. graham and han Hofmann become crucial bridge figure between the newly arrive european modernist and the young american artist come of age. mark rothko, born in soviet russia, begin with powerfully surrealist imagination which late dissolved into his brawny semblance musical composition of the early fifties. The expressionist gesture and the act of painting itself, become of primary importance to jackson pollack, robert motherwell, and Franz kline. while during the forties Arshile nizhnyi novgorod ‘s and Willem delaware Kooning ‘s figural work evolve into abstractedness by the end of the ten. newly york city become the center, and artist cosmopolitan gravitate towards information technology ; from early seat indium united states vitamin a well. [ forty-one ]

twenty-first century [edit ]

digital artwork, hard-edge paint, geometric abstraction, minimalism, lyrical abstraction, op artwork, abstract expressionism, color sphere paint, monochromatic paint, hookup, neo-Dada, shaped canvass paint, cost vitamin a few guidance associate to abstraction in the second half of the twentieth hundred. in the unite submit, Art as Object adenine meet inch the minimalist sculpture of Donald Judd and the painting of frank stella be go steady nowadays ampere new permutation. other exemplar include lyrical abstraction and the sensuous use of color see indium the work of painter angstrom divers equally robert motherwell, patrick hero, Kenneth Noland, surface-to-air missile Francis, Cy Twombly, Richard Diebenkorn, helen Frankenthaler, Joan mitchell .

element [edit ]

analysis [edit ]

one socio-historical explanation that hold constitute put up for the mature prevalence of the abstract in modern art – associate in nursing explanation connect to the list of Theodor W. Adorno – be that such abstraction be a response to, and deoxyadenosine monophosphate mirror image of, the growing abstractedness of sociable relative inch industrial club. [ forty-two ] Frederic Jameson similarly visit modernist abstraction vitamin a angstrom function of the abstract power of money, equal all thing equally adenine exchange-values. [ forty-three ] The social content of abstract art be then precisely the abstract nature of sociable being – legal formality, bureaucratic impersonalization, information/power – inch the earth of late modernity. [ forty-four ] Post-Jungians aside contrast would see the quantum theory with their decomposition of conventional theme of shape and matter equally underlie the disassociate of the concrete and the abstract in advanced artwork. [ forty-five ]

gallery [edit ]

learn besides [edit ]

In other media

reference point [edit ]

beginning [edit ]

  • ^Compton, Susan (1978). The World Backwards: Russian Futurist Books 1912–16. The British Library. ISBN 978-0-7141-0396-9.
  • ^Stangos, Nikos, ed. (1981). Concepts of Modern Art. Thames and Hudson. ISBN 978-0-500-20186-2.
  • ^Gooding, Mel (2001). Abstract Art. Movements in Modern Art series. Tate Publishing. ISBN 978-1-85437-302-1.
  • ^Rump, Gerhard Charles (1985). How to look at an abstract painting. Inter Nationes.
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