The Academy Award for Best Picture is one of the Academy Awards presented per annum by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences ( AMPAS ) since the awards debuted in 1929. This prize goes to the producers of the film and is the entirely category in which every member of the Oscars is eligible to submit a nominating speech and vote on the concluding vote. [ 1 ] The Best movie class is often the final award of the night and is wide considered as the most esteemed honor of the ceremony. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] [ 4 ] The Grand Staircase column at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood, where the Academy Awards ceremonies have been held since 2002, case every film that has won the Best Picture claim since the award ‘s origin. [ 5 ] There have been 581 films nominated for Best Picture and 94 winners. [ 6 ]
history [edit ]
class diagnose changes [edit ]
At the 1st Academy Awards ceremony ( for 1927 and 1928 ), there were two categories of awards that were each considered the clear award of the night : Outstanding Picture and Unique and Artistic Picture, the early being won by the war epic Wings, and the latter by the art film Sunrise. Each award was intended to honor unlike and equally significant aspects of superior filmmaking.
The postdate year, the Academy dropped the Unique and Artistic Picture award, and decided retroactively that the prize north korean won by Wings was the highest honor that could be awarded. [ 7 ] Although the award kept the championship Outstanding Picture for the adjacent ceremony, the name undergo several changes over the years as seen below. Since 1962, the prize has been merely called Best Picture. [ 6 ]
- 1927/28–1928/29: Academy Award for Outstanding Picture
- 1929/30–1940: Academy Award for Outstanding Production
- 1941–1943: Academy Award for Outstanding Motion Picture
- 1944–1961: Academy Award for Best Motion Picture
- 1962–present: Academy Award for Best Picture
Recipients [edit ]
Until 1950, this award was presented to a congressman of the production company. That class the protocol was changed so that the award was presented to all credited producers. This rule was modified in 1999 to apply a maximum limit of three producers receiving the award, after the five producers of Shakespeare in Love had received the prize. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] [ 10 ] As of 2020, the “ extra Rules for the Best picture of the Year Award ” limit recipients to those who meet two chief requirements : [ 11 ]
- Those with screen credit of “producer” or “produced by”, explicitly excluding those with the screen credit “executive producer, co-producer, associate producer, line producer, or produced in association with”
- those three or fewer producers who have performed the major portion of the producing functions
The rules allow bona fide team of not more than two people shall be considered to be a single “ producer ” if the two individuals have had an established producing partnership as determined by the Producers Guild of America Producing Partnership Panel. Final determination of the qualifying producer nominees for each nominate picture will be made by the Producers Branch Executive Committee, including the right to name any extra certified manufacturer as a campaigner. [ 11 ] The Academy can make exceptions to the limit, as when Anthony Minghella and Sydney Pollack were posthumously included among the four producers nominated for The Reader. [ 12 ] As of 2014 the Producers Branch Executive Committee determines such exceptions, noting they take place only in “ rare and extraordinary circumstance [ sulfur ]. ” [ 11 ] Steven Spielberg presently holds the record for most nominations at eleven, winning one, while Kathleen Kennedy holds the record for most nominations without a succeed at eight. Sam Spiegel and Saul Zaentz tie for the most wins with three each. As for the prison term when the Oscar was given to production companies alternatively, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer holds the record with five wins and 40 nominations .
Best word picture and Best Director [edit ]
The Academy Awards for Best Picture and Best Director have been closely linked throughout their history. Of the 94 films that have won Best picture, 67 have besides been awarded Best Director. lone six films have been awarded Best picture without receiving a Best Director nomination : Wings directed by William A. Wellman ( 1927/28 ), Grand Hotel directed by Edmund Goulding ( 1931/32 ), Driving Miss Daisy directed by Bruce Beresford ( 1989 ), Argo directed by Ben Affleck ( 2012 ), Green Book directed by Peter Farrelly ( 2018 ), and CODA ( 2021 ) directed by xian Heder. The alone two Best Director winners to win for films that did not receive a Best painting nomination were during the early years of the awards : Lewis Milestone for Two Arabian Knights ( 1927/28 ), and Frank Lloyd for The Divine Lady ( 1928/29 ). [ 13 ]
Nomination terminus ad quem increased [edit ]
On June 24, 2009, AMPAS announced that the number of films to be nominated in the Best Picture award category would increase from five to ten, starting with the 82nd Academy Awards ( 2009 ). [ 14 ] Although the Academy never formally said so, many commenters noted the expansion was likely in part a reception to populace criticism of The Dark Knight ( 2008 ) ( and, in former years, early blockbusters and popular films ) not being nominated for Best Picture. [ 15 ] [ 16 ] [ 17 ] Officially, the Academy said the govern exchange was a atavistic to the Academy ‘s early years in the 1930s and 1940s, when eight to 12 films were nominated each class. “ Having 10 Best picture nominees is going to allow Academy voters to recognize and include some of the fantastic movies that much show up in the early Oscar categories but have been squeezed out of the race for the top choice, ” AMPAS President Sid Ganis said in a press league. “ I ca n’t wait to see what that number of 10 looks like when the nominees are announced in February. ” [ 14 ] At the like meter, the vote system was switched from first-past-the-post to instant overflow vote ( besides known as discriminatory vote ). [ 18 ] In 2011, the Academy revised the predominate again so that the numeral of films nominated was between five and ten-spot ; nominated films must earn either 5 % of first-place rankings or 5 % after an abridge variation of the single movable vote nominating process. [ 19 ] Bruce Davis, the Academy administrator director at the prison term, said, “ A Best picture nomination should be an indication of extraordinary deserve. If there are only eight pictures that truly earn that award in a given year, we should n’t feel an obligation to round out the number. ” [ 20 ] This arrangement lasted until 2021, when the Academy reverted back to a determined number of ten-spot nominees from the 94th Academy Awards forth. [ 21 ]
linguistic process and country of origin [edit ]
alone thirteen non- english speech films have been nominated in the category : La Grande Illusion ( french, 1938 ) ; Z ( french, 1969 ) ; The Emigrants ( Swedish, 1972 ) ; Cries and Whispers ( Swedish, 1973 ) ; The Postman (Il Postino) ( Italian/Spanish, 1995 ) ; Life Is Beautiful ( italian, 1998 ) ; Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon ( Mandarin Chinese, 2000 ) ; Letters from Iwo Jima ( japanese, 2006, but ineligible for Best Foreign Language Film, as it was an american production ) ; Amour ( french, 2012 ) ; Roma ( Spanish/Mixtec, 2018 ) ; Parasite ( Korean, 2019 ) ; Minari ( Korean, 2020, but ineligible for Best International Feature Film, as it was an american production ), [ 22 ] and Drive My Car ( japanese, 2021 ). Parasite became the first movie not in English to win Best Picture. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] merely ten films wholly financed outside the United States have won Best movie, eight of which were financed, in separate or in wholly, by the United Kingdom : Hamlet ( 1948 ), Tom Jones ( 1963 ), A Man for All Seasons ( 1966 ), Chariots of Fire ( 1981 ), Gandhi ( 1982 ), The Last Emperor ( 1987 ), Slumdog Millionaire ( 2008 ), and The King’s Speech ( 2010 ). The ninth film, The Artist ( 2011 ), was financed in France and the tenth film, Parasite ( 2019 ), was financed in South Korea. [ 25 ]
Rating [edit ]
Since 1968, most Best photograph winners have been R-rated. Oliver! is the only G-rated film and Midnight Cowboy is the only X-rated ( now NC-17 ) film, so far, to win Best Picture. The latter has since been downgraded to an gas constant denounce. only eleven films have won with a PG rate, the first was Patton and the last was Driving Miss Daisy. merely nine films have won with a PG-13 rat, the first was The Last Emperor and the last was CODA .
Genres [edit ]
Some genres of film ( or mediums in the casing of an liveliness ) have received few or no nominations or awards. merely three animated films have been nominated — Beauty and the Beast ( 1991 ), Up ( 2009 ) and Toy Story 3 ( 2010 ). The latter two were nominated after the Academy expanded the number of nominees, but none have won. No comedian record or superhero movie has won, and only three have ever been nominated — Skippy ( 1931 ), Black Panther ( 2018 ), and Joker ( 2019 ). entirely two fantasy films have won — The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ( 2003 ) and The Shape of Water ( 2017 ), although more have been nominated. The Silence of the Lambs ( 1991 ) is the only horror film to win Best Picture, and merely five others have been nominated for Best picture : The Exorcist ( 1973 ), Jaws ( 1975 ), The Sixth Sense ( 1999 ), Black Swan ( 2010 ), and Get Out ( 2017 ). No science fiction film has won the prize, although respective films have been nominated, including A Clockwork Orange, Star Wars, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Avatar, District 9, Inception, Gravity, Her, The Martian, Arrival, Mad Max: Fury Road, Don’t Look Up and Dune. No documentary have has yet been nominated for Best Picture, although Chang was nominated in the “ Unique and Artistic Production ” class at the 1927/28 awards. several musical adaptations based on material previously filmed in non-musical imprint have won Best picture, including Gigi, West Side Story, My Fair Lady, The Sound of Music, Oliver!, and Chicago. several epics or historical epic films have won Best picture, including the first recipient Wings. Others include Cimarron, Cavalcade, Gone with the Wind, The Bridge on the River Kwai, Ben-Hur, Lawrence of Arabia, Patton, The Godfather, The Godfather Part II, The Last Emperor, Dances with Wolves, Schindler’s List, Forrest Gump, Braveheart, The English Patient, Titanic, Gladiator, and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King .
Sequel nominations and winners [edit ]
few sequels have been nominated for Best Picture and precisely two have won : The Godfather Part II ( the film before that, The Godfather, besides won the award ; the third base film in the installation The Godfather Part III, was nominated adenine well but did not win the award ) and The Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King ( the films before that, Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring and Lord of the Rings: The Two Towers were both nominated for the award but did not win ). early nominees include The Bells of St. Mary’s ( the sequel to the 1944 winner, Going My Way ), The Queen ( sequel to the 2003 television movie, The Deal ), Toy Story 3, and Mad Max: Fury Road. [ 22 ] Another campaigner, Broadway Melody of 1936, was a follow-up of sorts to previous winner The Broadway Melody. But, beyond the title and some music, there is no floor connection to the earlier film. The Silence of the Lambs was adapted from the sequel novel to Red Dragon. The latter had been adapted for film as Manhunter by a different studio. The Lion in Winter features Peter O’Toole as King Henry II, a character he had played previously in the film Becket, but Winter is not a sequel to Becket. Clint Eastwood ‘s Letters from Iwo Jima was a companion objet d’art to his film Flags of Our Fathers that was released in the first place the like year. These two films depict the same conflict from the different viewpoints of japanese and United States military forces ; the two films were shot back-to-back. In addition, Black Panther is a continuance of the events that occurred in Captain America: Civil War and the Marvel Cinematic Universe .
Remake nominations and winners [edit ]
Along like lines to sequels, there have been few winners that are either remakes or adaptations of the lapp reference materials or subjects. 1959 ‘s Ben-Hur is a remake of the 1925 dumb film with a like style and both were adapted from Lew Wallace ‘s 1880 novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ. 2006 ‘s The Departed is a remake of the 2002 Hong Kong film Infernal Affairs and was the first remake of a non-English linguistic process or external film to win. other nominees include 1963 ‘s Cleopatra about the title last tabby of Egypt following the 1934 version, 2018 ‘s A Star is Born following the 1937 film of the lapp mention, and 2019 ‘s Little Women following the 1933 film of the same name with both being adaptations of the 1868 novel. [ 26 ] 2010 ‘s True Grit was the moment adaptation of Charles Portis ‘s 1968 novel following the 1969 film of the like list. Four of the nominees for the 94th ceremony were based on generator material previously made into films : CODA, Dune, Nightmare Alley, and West Side Story. 2021 ‘s West Side Story became the second adaptation of the like source material for a former Best mental picture winner to be nominated for the like award after 1962 ‘s Mutiny on the Bounty. [ 27 ] For that same ceremony, CODA became the second remake of a non-English speech or international film to win.
Silent film winners [edit ]
At the 1st Academy Awards, the Best picture award – then named “ Academy Award for Outstanding Picture ” – was presented to the 1927 silent film Wings. The Artist ( 2011 ) was the first gear basically silent ( with the exception of a single scene of negotiation, and a dream sequence with reasoned effects ) film since Wings to win Best word picture. It was the beginning silent campaigner since 1928 ‘s The Patriot. It was the first base Best picture achiever to be produced wholly in black-and-white since 1960 ‘s The Apartment. ( Schindler’s List, the 1993 winner, was predominantly black-and-white but it did contain some color sequences ). [ 25 ]
Version handiness [edit ]
No Best picture achiever has been lost, though a few such as All Quiet on the Western Front and Lawrence of Arabia exist lone in a human body altered from their original, award-winning unblock form. This has normally been due to editing for reprint ( and subsequently partially restored by archivists ). other winners and nominees, such as Tom Jones ( anterior to its 2018 reissues by The Criterion Collection and the british Film Institute ) and Star Wars, are wide available alone in subsequently altered versions. The Broadway Melody in the first place had some sequences photographed in two-color Technicolor. This footage survives alone in black and white. [ 28 ] The 1928 film The Patriot is the lone Best Picture campaigner that is lost ( about one-third is extant ). [ 29 ] The Racket, besides from 1928, was believed lost for many years until a mark was found in Howard Hughes ‘ archives. It has since been restored and shown on Turner Classic Movies. [ 30 ] The only surviving complete prints of 1931 ‘s East Lynne and 1934 ‘s The White Parade exist within the UCLA film archive. [ 31 ]
Ceremony mistake [edit ]
In 2017, at the 89th Academy Awards, presenter Faye Dunaway read La La Land as the winner of the award. however, she and Warren Beatty had mistakenly been given the duplicate envelope for the “ Best actress in a Leading Role “ prize, which Emma Stone had won for her role in La La Land moments prior. In the leave chaos, it was La La Land producer Jordan Horowitz who ultimately announced—two minutes and twenty-seven seconds later—that Moonlight was the real winner. [ 32 ]
Winners and nominees [edit ]
In the number below, winners are listed inaugural in the amber row, followed by the early nominees. [ 6 ] Except for the early years ( when the Academy used a non-calendar year ), the year shown is the matchless in which the film first premiered in Los Angeles County, California ; normally this is besides the class of first gear release, however, it may be the year after beginning release ( as with Casablanca and, if the film-festival premier is considered, Crash ). This is besides the year before the ceremony at which the prize is given ; for model, a movie exhibited theatrically during 2005 was eligible for circumstance for the 2005 Best photograph Oscar, awarded in 2006. The number of the ceremony ( 1st, 2nd, etc. ) appears in parentheses after the awards year, linked to the article on that ceremony. Each individual entry shows the title followed by campaigner. Until 1950, the Best word picture prize was given to the production company ; from 1951 on, it has gone to the manufacturer or producers. The Academy used the producer credits of the Producers Guild of America ( PGA ) until 1998, when all five producers of Shakespeare in Love made speeches after its win. [ 8 ] [ 9 ] A three-producer terminus ad quem has been applied some years since. [ 9 ] [ 10 ] There was controversy over the exception of some PGA-credited producers of Crash and Little Miss Sunshine. [ 10 ] The Academy can make exceptions to the terminus ad quem, as when Anthony Minghella and Sydney Pollack were posthumously among the four nominated for The Reader. [ 12 ] however, now any total of producers on a film can be nominated for Best Picture, should they be deemed eligible. For the first ceremony, three films were nominated for the prize. For the following three years, five films were nominated for the prize. This was expanded to eight in 1933, to ten in 1934, and to twelve in 1935, before being dropped back to ten in 1937. In 1945, it was further reduced to five. This number remained until 2009, when the limit was raised to ten and late adjusted in 2011, to vary between five and ten. For the first six ceremonies, the eligibility time period spanned two calendar years. For example, the 2nd Academy Awards presented on April 3, 1930, recognized films that were released between August 1, 1928, and July 31, 1929. Starting with the 7th Academy Awards, held in 1935, the period of eligibility became the wide previous calendar year from January 1 to December 31 .
indicates the winner
1920s [edit ]
1930s [edit ]
1940s [edit ]
1950s [edit ]
1960s [edit ]
1970s [edit ]
1980s [edit ]
1990s [edit ]
2000s [edit ]
2010s [edit ]
2020s [edit ]
Individuals with multiple wins [edit ]
Individuals with multiple nominations [edit ]
production companies with multiple nominations and wins [edit ]
note [edit ]
- Only three film studios held the most records; Columbia Pictures holds the most wins with 12, 20th Century Studios holds the most nominations with 62, and Focus Features holds the most nominations without a win with 10.
See besides [edit ]
Notes [edit ]
nominees, based on records of which films were evaluated by the judges at the time .
The 2nd Academy Awards is singular in being the only occasion where there were no official nominees. subsequent inquiry by AMPAS has resulted in a list of
- The Academy besides announced that A Farewell to Arms came in second, and Little Women third .
- The Academy besides announced that The Barretts of Wimpole Street came in second, and The House of Rothschild third .
- The Academy besides announced that The Informer came in second, and Captain Blood third base .