MLA ( Modern Language Association ) expressive style is most normally used to write papers and summon sources within the liberal arts and humanities. This resource, updated to reflect the MLA Handbook ( 9th erectile dysfunction. ), offers examples for the cosmopolitan format of MLA inquiry papers, in-text citations, endnotes/footnotes, and the Works Cited page .
The function of ocular materials or other illustrations is to enhance the hearing ‘s sympathize of information in the document and/or awareness of a topic. Writers can embed respective types of visuals using most basic password action software : diagrams, musical scores, photograph, or, for documents that will be read electronically, audio/video applications. Because MLA style is most much used in the humanities, it is unlikely that you will include raw scientific datum in an MLA-style newspaper, but you may be asked to include early kinds of inquiry in your writing. For extra information on writing a research newspaper in MLA style, visit the MLA Style Center ’ mho page on Formatting a Research Paper .
- Collect sources. Gather the source information required for MLA documentation for the source medium of the illustration (e.g. print, Web, podcast).
- Determine what types of illustrations best suit your purpose. Consider the purpose of each illustration, how it contributes to the purpose of the document and the reader’s understanding, and whether the audience will be able to view and/or understand the illustration easily.
- Use illustrations of the best quality. Avoid blurry, pixilated, or distorted images for both print and electronic documents. Often pixelation and distortion occurs when writers manipulate image sizes. Keep images in their original sizes or use photo editing software to modify them. Reproduce distorted graphs, tables, or diagrams with spreadsheet or publishing software, but be sure to include all source information. Always represent the original source information faithfully and avoid unethical practices of false representation or manipulation ( this is considered plagiarism ) .
- Use illustrations sparingly. Decide what items can best improve the document’s ability to augment readers’ understanding of the information, appreciation for the subject, and/or illustration of the main points. Do not provide illustrations for illustrations’ sake. Scrutinize illustrations for how potentially informative or persuasive they can be.
- Do not use illustrations to boost page length. In the case of student papers, instructors often do not count the space taken up by visual aids toward the required page length of the document. Remember that texts explain, while illustrations enhance. Illustrations cannot carry the entire weight of the document.
Labels, captions, and source information
Illustrations appear directly embedded in the document, except in the case of manuscripts that are being prepared for publication. ( For preparing manuscripts with ocular materials for publication, see Note on Manuscripts below. ) Each example must include a label, a number, a caption and/or source data .
- The illustration label and number should always appear in two places: the document main text (e.g. see fig. 1) and near the illustration itself (Fig. 1).
- Captions provide titles or explanatory notes (e.g., Van Gogh’s The Starry Night)
- Source information documentation will always depend upon the medium of the source illustration. If you provide source information with all of your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page.
MLA documentation for tables, figures, and examples
MLA provides three designations for document illustrations : tables, figures, and examples ( see specific sections below ) .
- Refer to the table and its corresponding numeral in-text. Do not capitalize the word table. This is typically done in parentheses (e.g. “(see table 2)”).
- Situate the table near the text to which it relates.
- Align the table flush-left to the margin.
- Label the table ‘Table’ and provide its corresponding Arabic numeral. No punctuation is necessary after the label and number (see example below).
- On the next line, provide a caption for the table, most often the table title. Use title case.
- Place the table below the caption, flush-left, making sure to maintain basic MLA style formatting (e.g. one-inch margins).
- Below the title, signal the source information with the descriptor “Source,” followed by a colon, then provide the correct MLA bibliographic information for the source in note form (see instructions and examples above). If you provide source information with your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page.
- If additional caption information or explanatory notes is necessary, use lowercase letters formatted in superscript in the caption information or table. Below the source information, indent, provide a corresponding lowercase letter (not in superscript), a space, and the note.
- Labels, captions, and notes are double-spaced.
In-text reference :
In 1985, women aged 65 and older were 59 % more likely than men of the like senesce to reside in a nurse home plate, and though 11,700 less women of that age group were enrolled in 1999, men over the lapp prison term time period ranged from 30,000 to 39,000 persons while women accounted for 49,000 to 61,500 ( see mesa 1 ) .
table reference :
rate of Nursing Home Residence among People Age 65 or Older, by sex and Age Group, 1985, 1995, 1997, 1999a
reference : Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, Older Americans 2008 : cardinal Indicators of Well-Being, Federal Interagency Forum on Aging-Related Statistics, Mar. 2008, board 35A .
a. note : Rates for 65 and over category are age-adjusted using the 2000 standard population. Beginning in 1997, population figures are adjusted for internet underenumeration using the 1990 National Population Adjustment Matrix from the U.S. Census Bureau. People residing in personal care or domiciliary worry homes are excluded from the numerator .
- All visuals/illustrations that are not tables or musical score examples (e.g. maps, diagrams, charts, videos, podcasts, etc.) are labeled Figure or Fig.
- Refer to the figure in-text and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the figure. Do not capitalize figure or fig.
- MLA does not specify alignment requirements for figures; thus, these images may be embedded as the reader sees fit. However, continue to follow basic MLA Style formatting (e.g. one-inch margins).
- Below the figure, provide a label name and its corresponding arabic numeral (no bold or italics), followed by a period (e.g. Fig. 1.). Here, Figure and Fig. are capitalized.
- Beginning with the same line as the label and number, provide a title and/or caption as well as relevant source information in note form (see instructions and examples above). If you provide source information with your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page.
- If full citation information is provided in the caption, use the same formatting as you would for your Works Cited page. However, names should be listed in first name last name format.
In-text citation :
Some readers found Harry ’ s final examination conflict with Voldemort a disappointment, and recently, the podcast, MuggleCast debated the capable ( see fig. 2 ).
figure caption ( below an embed podcast file for a document to be viewed electronically ) :
Fig. 2. Harry Potter and Voldemort final struggle debate from Andrew Sims et aluminum. ; “ Show 166 ” ; MuggleCast ; MuggleNet.com, 19 Dec. 2008, www.mugglenet.com/2015/11/the-snape-debate-rowling-speaks-out .
- The form “ Example ” only refers to musical illustrations ( e.g. portions of a musical score ). It is frequently abbreviated “ ex-husband.”
- consult to the model in-text and provide an Arabic numeral that corresponds to the case. Do not capitalize “ exercise ” or “ antique” in the text.
- Supply the illustration, making sure to maintain basic MLA Style formatting (e.g. one-inch margins).
- Below the example, provide the label (capitalizing Example or Ex.) and number and a caption or title. The caption or title will often take the form of source information along with an explanation, for example, of what part of the score is being illustrated. If you provide source information with your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page.
Musical Illustration Example
In-text reference :
In Ambroise Thomas ‘s opera Hamlet, the championship character ‘s iconic theme first base appears in Act 1. As Hamlet enters the castle ‘s vacant grand hall following his mother ‘s coronation, the low strings begin playing the theme ( ex-husband 1 ) .
musical Illustration reference :
source : Thomas, Ambroise. Hamlet. 1868 .
Source information and note form
Notes serve two purposes : to provide bibliographic information and to provide extra context for information in the textbook. When it comes to citing illustrations, using notes allows for the bibliographic information as close to the example as potential .
Note shape entries appear much like standard MLA bibliographic entries with a few exceptions :
- Author names are in First_Name—Last_Name format.
- Commas are substituted for periods (except in the case of the period that ends the entry).
- Publication information for books (publisher, year) appears in parentheses.
- Relevant page numbers follow the publication information.
Note: Use semicolons to denote entry sections when long series of commas make these sections unmanageable to ascertain as being like or discriminate ( see exemplar below. ) The MLA Handbook ( 8th erectile dysfunction. ) states that if the table or exemplification caption provides dispatch citation information about the source and the reference is not cited in the text, authors do not need to list the source in the Works Cited list .
For extra information, visit the MLA Style Center ’ sulfur page on Using Notes in MLA Style .
Examples – Documenting source information in “Note form”
The following examples provide data on how a note might look following an example. Write the give voice “ Source ” immediately before your reference note. If an exemplification requires more than one note, label extra notes with lowercase letters, starting with a ( see the eminence underneath the model table above ) .
Tom Shachtman, Absolute Zero and the Conquest of Cold ( Houghton Mifflin, 1999 ), p. 35 .
Website (using semicolons to group like information together)
United States ; Dept. of Commerce ; Census Bureau ; Manufacturing, Mining, and Construction Statistics ; Housing Units Authorized by Building Permits ; US Dept. of Commerce, 5 Feb. 2008 ; table 1a.
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In this example, the comma in Manufacturing, Mining, and Construction Statistics prompt the motivation for semicolons in order for the series information to be read well. even if Manufacturing, Mining, and Construction Statistics had not appeared in the entrance, the multiple “ writer names ” of United States, Dept. of Commerce, and Census Bureau would have necessitated the use of a semicolon before and after the title and between ensuing sections to the end of the submission .
furthermore, the publisher and date in a standard submission are separated by a comma and belong together ; thus, their inclusion body hera ( US Dept. of Commerce, 5 Feb. 2008 ) besides necessitates the semicolons .
Note on manuscripts
Do not embed illustrations ( tables, figures, or examples ) in manuscripts for issue. Put placeholders in the text to show where the illustrations will go. Type these placeholders on their own line, flush left, and bracketed ( e.g. [ table 1 ] ). At the goal of the document, provide label, number, subtitle, and source data in an unionize list. Send files for illustrations in the allow format to your editor individually. If you provide reservoir data with your illustrations, you do not need to provide this information on the Works Cited page .
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