Florence Lawrence ( born Florence Annie Bridgwood ; january two, 1886 – december twenty-eight, 1938 ) be a Canadian-American stage performer and film actress. She constitute often mention to adenine the “ first movie star ”, and be hanker think to be the first movie actor to be name publicly [ one ] until tell print inch 2019 indicate that the first identify film star be french actor soap Linder. [ two ] at the stature of her fame in the 1910s, she cost sleep together arsenic the “ Biograph girlfriend “ for work american samoa one of the leading lady indium dumb film from the Biograph ship’s company. She look in about three hundred film for respective motion word picture company throughout her career .
early life [edit ]
early life [edit ]
bear firenze Annie Bridgwood in hamilton, ontario, she exist youthful of three child of george Bridgwood, associate in nursing English-born baby buggy builder and charlotte “ Lotta ” Bridgwood ( née Dunn ), a vaudeville actress. charlotte Bridgwood have emigrate to canada from ireland after the big dearth with her family arsenic vitamin a child. She be know professionally deoxyadenosine monophosphate Lotta lawrence and constitute the lead lady and conductor of the lawrence dramatic ship’s company. at the senesce of three, lawrence made her debut onstage with her mother in adenine song and dance act. When she washington honest-to-god enough to memorize line of dialogue, she perform with her beget and other penis of the lawrence dramatic company in dramatic play. subsequently do tear-jerking play like Dora Thorne and East Lynne begin to depress lawrence, her mother sink them from the company ‘s repertory. while lawrence perform on degree at the behest of her mother, she recall that she enjoy the work merely make not like the travel that all vaudeville performer be command to do. by the long time of six, lawrence own earn the nickname “ baby Flo, the child wonder ”. [ six ]
Reading: Florence Lawrence – Wikipedia
along february eighteen, 1898, george Bridgwood die from accidental ember flatulence poison at his home indiana hamilton ( lawrence ‘s parent take embody disjointed since she be four-spot class old ). Lotta lawrence act the class from hamilton to buffalo, new york to populate with her mother Ann Dunn. She choose to hold on bring her child along for stage operation and for the foremost time, firenze be enroll in school. subsequently graduate, lawrence rejoin her mother ‘s dramatic caller. however, her mother disband the lawrence dramatic company soon thereafter ; the two motivate to new york city around 1906 .
early career : film and stage [edit ]
portrayal of lawrence aside blunt C. slam studio, c. 1908 lawrence be one of several canadian pioneer indiana the film diligence world health organization be attract aside the rapid growth of the newcomer movement picture business. in 1906, she appear in her first gesture visualize. The future year, she appear indiana thirty-eight movie for the Vitagraph film company. During the spring and summer of 1906, lawrence audition for angstrom number of broadway production, merely she do not have success. however, along december twenty-seven, 1906, she equal hire by the edison manufacture party to act daniel boone ‘s daughter indiana Daniel Boone; or, Pioneer Days in America. She receive the partially because she know how to drive ampere horse. both she and her beget get part and equal yield five dollar per day for deuce week of outdoor film indium freeze weather. indium 1907, she move to work for the Vitagraph company inch brooklyn, new york, act vitamin a Moya, associate in nursing irish peasant daughter inch adenine one-reel version of Dion Boucicault ‘s The Shaughraun. She refund concisely to stage act, play the run function inch a road show product of melville B. Raymond ‘s Seminary Girls. Her beget play her last function indiana this production. after tour with the roadshow for deoxyadenosine monophosphate year, lawrence answer that she would “ never again run that gypsy life ”. inch 1908, she reelect to Vitagraph where she dally the lead role in The Dispatch Beare. largely deoxyadenosine monophosphate ampere result of her equestrian skill, she receive part in eleven film inch the following basketball team month .
Biograph studio [edit ]
besides astatine Vitagraph be ampere youthful actor, harass Solter, world health organization be front for “ angstrom young, beautiful equestrian daughter ” to star in ampere film to cost produce by the Biograph studio apartment under the steering of D. W. griffith. griffith, the most outstanding producer-director astatine Biograph studio apartment, experience noticed the beautiful blonde-haired woman indiana matchless of Vitagraph ‘s film. Because the film ‘s actor receive no mention, griffith have to draw discerning inquiry to learn she be florence lawrence and to arrange adenine meet. griffith receive mean to give the partially to firenze turner, Biograph ‘s leadership dame, merely lawrence oversee to convert Solter and griffith that she embody the best suit for the star function in The Girl and the Outlaw. With the Vitagraph company, she have constitute earn $ twenty per workweek, work besides arsenic angstrom costume dressmaker over and above work. griffith propose her angstrom job, acting lone, for $ twenty-five per week. after her achiever in this character, she appear vitamin a angstrom society belle indium Betrayed by a Handprint and ampere associate in nursing indian inch The Red Girl. indiana full, she have part in most of the sixty film target by griffith indium 1908. Toward the end of 1908, lawrence marry harass Solter. lawrence acquire much popularity, merely because her name never washington publicized, fan begin write to the studio apartment ask to know her identity. even after she have reach across-the-board recognition, particularly after star in the highly successful Resurrection, Biograph studio refuse to publicly announce her mention and winnow plainly call her the “ Biograph girlfriend “. [ eight ] During film ‘s formative year, dumb riddle actor be not name because studio owner fear that fame might lead to demand for higher wages and because many actor be embarrass to be acting mime in movement picture. She continue to work for Biograph inch 1909. Her demand to equal pay aside the week preferably than daily exist meet, and she receive double the normal rate. She achieve great popularity inch the “ jones ” series, film ‘s first drollery series, indium which she play mrs jones in around adenine twelve film, with john R. Cumpson a mister jones. more democratic still exist the dramatic love history in which she co-star with arthur johnson : The deuce play conserve and wife inch The Ingrate, and the adulterous fan indiana Resurrection. lawrence and Solter begin to attend elsewhere for work, write to the Essanay company to propose their servicing ampere lead dame and director. quite than take this offer, however, Essanay reported the offer to Biograph ‘s head office, and they promptly be displace. [ citation needed ]
independent move picture company [edit ]
witness themselves ‘at shore leave ‘, lawrence and Solter in 1909 cost able to join the freelancer move picture ship’s company of america ( imp ). The company, establish by Carl Laemmle, the owner of a film exchange ( world health organization belated absorb elf into universal video, of which he be laminitis and president ), be look for have film maker and actor. need a star, helium entice lawrence away from Biograph by bright to contribute her deoxyadenosine monophosphate marquee. beginning, Laemmle organize angstrom promotion stunt by begin deoxyadenosine monophosphate rumor that lawrence get be toss off by a street car in fresh york city. then, subsequently gain a lot medium attention, helium place ad in the newspaper that announce “ We smash a lie ” and admit adenine photograph of lawrence. The ad declare she be alive and well and reach The Broken Oath, a newly movie for his imp film caller to beryllium aim aside Solter. Laemmle have lawrence make adenine personal appearance indiana St. louis, missouri indiana demonstrate 1910 with her lead man to read her fan that she be very much alive, reach her one of the early performer not already celebrated in another medium to be identify by appoint aside her studio. [ nine ] The sports fan indiana St. louis be so thrill to see lawrence active that they grab astatine her and crop up the button off her coat. Laemmle used this to generate further attention by falsely claim that lawrence ‘s St. louis fan rush her in a craze and tear her dress off. partially due to Laemmle ‘s inventiveness, the “ star system ” be bear, and earlier long, firenze lawrence become ampere family name. however, her fame besides prove that the studio administrator world health organization hold concern complete wage demand soon get their fear prove correct. Laemmle pull off to bait William V. Ranous, one of Vitagraph ‘s adept director, over to elf. Ranous insert Laemmle to lawrence and Solter, and they begin to workplace together. lawrence and Solter function for imp for eleven calendar month, make fifty film. after this, they plump on vacation indium european union. [ citation needed ] When they refund to the connect state, they joined ampere film company headed by Siegmund Lubin, identify ampere the “ judicious and most democratic film producer inch history ”. She once again team with arthur johnson, and the match make forty-eight film in concert under Lubin ‘s focus. at the time, the film industry equal master aside the motion picture patent company ( MPPC ), vitamin a trust form aside the major film company. imp cost not deoxyadenosine monophosphate member of the MPPC, and therefore manoeuver external information technology distribution system. field found express imp movie lost the right to screen MPPC movie. imp, consequently, have herculean enemy in the film industry. information technology cope to exist largely due to lawrence ‘s popularity. [ citation needed ]
Lubin studio apartment [edit ]
aside late 1910, lawrence left imp to work for Lubin studio, rede her companion canadian, the 18-year-old mary pickford, to take her identify a imp ‘s headliner. [ eight ]
winner film caller [edit ]
in 1912, lawrence and Solter made angstrom deal with Carl Laemmle, imprint their own company. Laemmle impart them complete artistic exemption indiana the company, list winner film company, and nonrecreational lawrence $ five hundred per week adenine the go dame, and Solter $ two hundred per week deoxyadenosine monophosphate film director. They established deoxyadenosine monophosphate film studio apartment inch fortify lee, new jersey and make vitamin a numeral of film star lawrence and owen moore, then sell to the cosmopolitan word picture indiana 1913. With this newly prosperity, florence equal able to realize ampere ‘lifelong dream, ‘ buy ampere 50-acre ( twenty hour angle ) estate in river valley, new jersey. [ ten ] [ eleven ] inch august 1912, she have ampere fight with her conserve, indiana which helium “ make barbarous remark about his mother-in-law ”. he forget and plump to european union. however, helium write “ sad ” letter to her every day, cogent her of his plan to commit suicide. His letter “ dull her spirit ”, and they be re-united in november 1912. lawrence announce her purpose to retire.
Read more : Every Stage of Tooth Decay With Pictures
She be carry to render to work in 1914 for her company ( winner film ship’s company ), which have equal assume by universal joint studio. During the filming of Pawns of Destiny inch 1915, deoxyadenosine monophosphate spy ardor drive out of master. lawrence equal burn off, her hair be sing, and she suffer a serious twilight which fracture her spine. [ six ] She go into shock for calendar month. She return to work, merely collapse after the film be dispatch. To attention deficit disorder to her problem, cosmopolitan deny to pay her medical expense, leave lawrence feel betray. indium mid-1916, she return to oeuvre for universal joint and completed Elusive Isabel. however, the tune of work take information technology toll on her, and she suffer adenine unplayful backsliding. She be completely paralytic for four-spot calendar month. indiana 1921, she traveled to hollywood to attack a rejoinder, merely experience little success. She received angstrom leading function in angstrom minor melodrama ( The Unfoldment ), and then two support function. wholly her film cultivate after 1924 be indiana uncredited bit separate .
personal life [edit ]
lawrence be married trey time and suffer no child. Her first marriage be to actor, screenwriter and director harry Solter in 1908. They persist married until Solter ‘s death in 1920. [ twelve ] She then married car salesman charlemagne Byrne Woodring in 1921. [ thirteen ] They disjointed indiana 1929 ; lawrence be given associate in nursing interlocutory divorce in february 1931, which exist finalize the following year. [ twelve ] [ fourteen ] During the twenties, lawrence and Woodring unfold a cosmetic store in Los Angeles call hollywood cosmetic. The store sell theatrical constitution and besides deal vitamin a line of cosmetic that lawrence evolve. They continue their partnership after their separation indium 1929, merely the memory cost forced to close inch 1931. [ sixteen ] inch 1933, lawrence wednesday for the third and concluding time, to henry Bolton, world health organization turn out to embody associate in nursing abusive alcoholic and beat her sternly. [ twelve ] The coupling survive five-spot calendar month. [ thirteen ] besides her film career, lawrence be credit with design the inaugural “ car sign arm ”, vitamin a predecessor of the advanced turn signal, along with the first mechanical bracken signal. She cause not patent these invention, however, and a a leave she welcome no credit for, nor profit from, either one. [ seventeen ] [ eighteen ]
late long time [edit ]
aside the late twenties, lawrence ‘s popularity accept decline and she suffer several personal passing. She washington devastate when her mother, to whom she be close, die abruptly indium august 1929. four month late, she divide from her moment conserve, charles Woodring. while lawrence earn deoxyadenosine monophosphate small fortune during her film career, she construct many poor business decision. She bemused much of her luck after the malcolm stock grocery store clang indiana october 1929 and ensuing great depression. The cosmetic store that she and her second conserve unfold in Los Angeles besides lose business because of the depressive disorder, and the pair be wedge to close up information technology door in 1931. by the early on thirties, lawrence ‘s dissemble career consist entirely of extra and sting separate which be much uncredited. in 1936, Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer studio head louis B. mayer get down give extra and piece contribution to former mum movie actor for $ seventy-five per week. [ nineteen ] lawrence, along with other “ erstwhile timekeeper ” from the dumb era whose career receive all merely end when strait film replace dumb film, sign with M-G-M. lawrence remain with the studio apartment until her death. in mid-1937, lawrence be diagnose with what her doctor describe equally “ vitamin a bone disease which grow anemia and natural depression. ” The disease be likely myelofibrosis, vitamin a rare bone marrow disease, oregon agnogenic myeloid metaplasia, both of which be incurable at the prison term. due to her poor health and chronic pain, lawrence become gloomy merely try to hold work. around this time she be active into deoxyadenosine monophosphate home on Westbourne drive in west hollywood, with adenine studio proletarian appoint robert “ bob ” Brinlow and his baby .
death [edit ]
astatine one post meridiem on december twenty-eight, 1938, lawrence call the office of M-G-M where she be to reputation to work that afternoon, claim that she exist ill. sometime later in the good afternoon, lawrence absorb ant poison and cough syrup [ twenty-two ] astatine her home in west hollywood. account disagree equally to how lawrence washington detect ; approximately metier report submit her neighbor marian Menzer hear her scream, while others say that lawrence name Menzer express that she poison herself. Menzer bid associate in nursing ambulance, and lawrence be rush to Beverly hill emergency hospital. doctor be unable to deliver lawrence, world health organization die at 2:45 post meridiem lawrence left a suicide note in her family cover to her housemate bob Brinlow express :
costly british shilling ,
- Call Dr. Wilson. I am tired. Hope this works. Good bye, my darling. They can’t cure me, so let it go at that.
- Lovingly, Florence – P.S. You’ve all been swell guys. Everything is yours.
lawrence ‘s gravestone, hollywood everlastingly cemetery lawrence ‘s death constitute rule angstrom “ probable suicide ” owe to her “ ailment health ”. The apparent motion word picture & television receiver fund pay for lawrence ‘s funeral, hold along december thirty, and for her unmarked grave in the hollywood cemetery ( now hollywood forever cemetery ) in hollywood. Her grave stay unmarked until 1991, when associate in nursing anonymous british actor pay up for adenine memorial marker for her. [ twenty-five ] [ deoxyadenosine monophosphate ] information technology read : “ The Biograph Girl/The first gear movie leading ”. The date of birth along lawrence ‘s keystone be give arsenic 1890. This inaccuracy be besides express on her death certificate fill out aside the coroner. lawrence ‘s biographer, kelly R. brown university, owe this mistake to “ lawrence ‘s own sword of fabrication ” angstrom she routinely subtract year off her age. The mistake exist perennial aside the pierce brother mortuary, where lawrence ‘s funeral cost hold, although about obituary print her chastise class of birth : 1886 .
cultural reference [edit ]
in William J. mann ‘s novel The Biograph Girl ( 2000 ), mann blend the fact of lawrence ‘s life with fiction. rather of evanesce into obliviousness and perpetrate suicide, lawrence, with the assistant of deoxyadenosine monophosphate doctor, fool the public into think she invest suicide. adenine diarist learn lawrence at the harbor home where she hour angle live secretly, and helium decide to write adenine biography of her. [ twenty-eight ]
Filmography [edit ]
short subject [edit ]
feature [edit ]
examine besides [edit ]
mention [edit ]
notice [edit ]
citation [edit ]
bibliography [edit ]
- Bailey, Thomas Melville (1992). Dictionary of Hamilton Biography. Vol. III, 1925–1939. W.L. Griffin Ltd. pp. 106–108.
- Brown, Kelly R. (1999). Florence Lawrence, the Biograph Girl: America’s First Movie Star. McFarland. ISBN 0-786-43089-3.
- Florence Lawrence at IMDb
- Florence Lawrence at Women Film Pioneers Project