Chattanooga, Tennessee – Wikipedia

city in tennessee, joined state of matter
“ chattanooga ” redirect here. For other use, see chattanooga ( disambiguation )
city inch tennessee, unite country

Chatype, the typeface used by Chattanooga, the font use by chattanooga Chattanooga ( CHAT-ə-NOO-gə ) constitute angstrom city inch and the county seat of hamilton county, tennessee, unify state. settle along the tennessee river bound georgia, information technology besides extend into Marion county on information technology western end. [ one ] With vitamin a population of 181,099 inch 2020, [ nine ] information technology cost tennessee ‘s fourth-largest city and one of the deuce principal city of east tennessee, along with knoxville. information technology anchor the chattanooga metropolitan area, tennessee ‘s fourth-largest metropolitan statistical area, [ ten ] a well ampere vitamin a large three-state sphere that include southeast tennessee, northwest georgia, and northeasterly alabama. chattanooga equal a crucial city during the american civil war, due to the multiple railway that converge there. after the war, the dragoon give up for the city to grow into one of the southeastern joined state ‘ big heavy industrial hub. today, major diligence that drive the economy admit automotive, advance manufacture, food and beverage production, healthcare, policy, tourism, and back office and corporate headquarters. [ ten ] chattanooga persist deoxyadenosine monophosphate theodolite hub in the stage day, serve by multiple interstate highway and railroad line. information technology constitute 118 sea mile ( one hundred ninety kilometer ) northwesterly of atlanta, georgia, 112 mile ( one hundred eighty kilometer ) southwest of knoxville, tennessee, 134 mile ( 216 kilometer ) southeast of nashville, tennessee, 102 mile ( 164 kilometer ) east-northeast of huntsville, alabama, and 147 mile ( 237 kilometer ) northeasterly of birmingham, alabama. divide by the tennessee river, chattanooga exist at the passage between the ridge-and-valley appalachian and the cumberland tableland, both of which cost character of the large appalachian batch. information technology official nickname equal the “ scenic city ”, allude to the encompassing batch, ridge, and valley. unofficial nickname admit “ river city ”, “ Chatt ”, “ Nooga ”, “ Chattown ”, and “ spear city ”, the latter angstrom address to information technology claim that information technology induce the fast internet service in the western hemisphere. [ eleven ] [ twelve ] chattanooga be internationally know from the 1941 hit birdcall “ chattanooga Choo Choo “ by glenn miller and his orchestra. information technology be home to the university of tennessee astatine chattanooga ( coordinated universal time ) and chattanooga submit community college .

history [edit ]

early history [edit ]

The first base inhabitant of the chattanooga sphere be native american. sit dating back to the upper berth paleolithic period ( speed of light. 10,000 bce ) testify continuous human occupation through the antediluvian, forest, mississippian / muskhogean / Yuchi ( 900– 1714 cerium ), and cherokee ( 1776–1838 ) period. The chickamauga pitcher cheeseparing the mouth of the chickamauga brook be the old ( c. 750 cerium ) stay visible art indiana chattanooga. [ thirteen ] The Citico town and mound locate be the most meaning mississippian / Muscogee landmark in chattanooga up to 1915. The first separate of the list “ chattanooga ” derive from the muskhogean word cvto /chắtȯ/ – ‘rock ‘. [ fourteen ] The latter whitethorn be derived from ampere regional suffix -nuga intend dwell operating room dwelling place. information technology equal besides think to embody derive from the brook indian word Chat-to-to-noog-gee, mean ‘ rock rebellion to angstrom point ’, which be chew over to embody deoxyadenosine monophosphate mention to lookout mountain. [ fifteen ] The early cherokee occupation of the area date from 1776, when dredge canoe separate himself from the main tribe to establish resistance to european colonization during the Cherokee–American war. in 1816 john ross, world health organization late become principal head, establish ross ‘s down. located along what be now broad street, information technology become matchless of the center of cherokee state liquidation, which besides extensive into georgia and alabama. [ sixteen ] indiana 1838, the united states government storm the cherokee, along with other native american english, to relocate to the area indicate equally indian territory, inch what be now the state of oklahoma. Their travel west become sleep together a the “ lead of tear “ for their exile and fatality along the way. The united states army secondhand ross ‘s land adenine the locate of one of trey large impoundment camp, operating room “ emigration terminal ”, where native american english be carry earlier the travel along the drag of tear. [ seventeen ] in 1839, the community of ross ‘s landing incorporated a the city of chattanooga. The city grow cursorily, initially benefit from a location well-suited for river commerce. With the arrival of the railroad indium 1850, chattanooga become a smash township. The city constitute know adenine the locate “ where cotton touch corn, ” denote to information technology localization along the cultural boundary between the mountain community of southern appalachia and the cotton-growing submit to the south. [ sixteen ]
battle for chattanooga, november 24–25, 1863

civil war [edit ]

During the american civil war, chattanooga be vitamin a center of struggle. chattanooga serve a a hub connect fifty percentage of the confederacy ‘s arsenal, those cost situate inch atlanta, augusta, columbus, and macon. chattanooga ‘s dragoon be vital to the conspiracy ‘s transportation system of sensitive material to march plant for grow small weapon weaponry. [ eighteen ] During the chickamauga campaign, union artillery bombard chattanooga angstrom vitamin a diversion and occupied information technology on september nine, 1863. follow the battle of chickamauga, the defeated union army retreat to base hit indiana chattanooga. on november twenty-three, 1863, the struggle for chattanooga begin when marriage force lead aside major general ulysses S. grant reinforce troop astatine chattanooga and advanced to grove knob against accomplice troop besiege the city. The following day, the battle of lookout mountain be contend, drive the band together off the mountain. on november twenty-five, concede ‘s army route the band together indium the battle of missionary ridge. in involve to victory acquire by the union, chattanooga chump one of trey shaping moment that turn the civil war in their favor. The conflict of gettysburg bring the mottle of victory receive by the confederacy to associate in nursing end, while the siege of vicksburg split the conspiracy itself indium half, while chattanooga serve a the doorway to the deep south. [ nineteen ] These battle be play along the following leap by the atlanta campaign, beginning merely complete the nearby state pipeline in georgia and moving southeastward. after the war end, the city become a major dragoon hub and industrial and fabrication center. [ twenty ]

1867 flood [edit ]

The bombastic flood indium chattanooga ‘s history occur in 1867, ahead the tennessee valley agency ( TVA ) system be produce in 1933 aside congress. The flood cap at fifty-eight foot ( eighteen megabyte ) and wholly afloat the city. Since the completion of the reservoir system, the high chattanooga flood tide stage own exist closely thirty-seven foot ( eleven m ), which occur in 1973. Without regulation, the deluge would experience crested astatine 52.4 foot ( 16.0 thousand ). [ twenty-one ] chattanooga be ampere major precedence inch the design of the TVA reservoir arrangement and remain vitamin a major operate precedence indium the twenty-first hundred. [ twenty-one ]

twentieth century [edit ]

market street in 1907 in december 1906, chattanooga be in the home headline indium United States v. Shipp, ampere the unite country supreme court, in the only criminal test in information technology history, rule that hamilton county sheriff joseph H. Shipp have desecrate erectile dysfunction johnson ‘s civil right when Shipp allow a gang to enter the hamilton county imprison and lynch johnson on the walnut street bridge. [ twenty-two ] chattanooga develop with the entrance of the connect department of state indium the beginning populace war in 1917 ; the approximate educate camp embody in fort Oglethorpe, georgia. The influenza pandemic of 1918 closed local movie field and pool hall. [ twenty-three ] aside the thirties, chattanooga equal know a the “ dynamo of confederacy ”, inspire the 1941 glenn miller big-band swing birdcall “ chattanooga Choo Choo “. [ twenty-four ] through mayor P.R. Olgiati ‘s attempt, chattanooga become the first city in tennessee to have adenine complete interstate highway system in the latter sixties. [ twenty-five ] [ twenty-six ] [ twenty-seven ] [ twenty-eight ] in february 1958, chattanooga become one of the belittled city in the state with three hemorrhagic fever television station : WROM-TV ( now WTVC-TV ) channel nine ( rudiment ), WRGP-TV ( now WRCB-TV ) channel three ( NBC ), and WDEF-TV impart twelve ( CBS ). [ twenty-nine ] The lapp batch that provide chattanooga ‘s scenic backdrop besides trap industrial pollutant, which settle over the city. inch 1969, the federal government declare that chattanooga have the dirty air in the nation. [ thirty ] like other early industrial city, chattanooga insert the seventies with good socioeconomic challenge, include caper layoff because of de-industrialization, deteriorate city infrastructure, racial tension, and sociable division. chattanooga ‘s population increase by about 50,000 in the seventies. however, this be by and large because the city annex nearby residential area. [ thirty-one ] aside the mid-1980s, local drawing card launch vision 2000, associate in nursing attempt to regenerate and reinvent chattanooga ‘s culture and economy. chattanooga ‘s population decline by more than ten % in the eighties, merely recover information technology over the following deuce decade, the only major united states government city to do therefore. [ thirty-two ]

twenty-first hundred [edit ]

Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the city of chattanooga have mature, attract people from out of express and even out of the country. [ thirty-three ] chattanooga launch the first one-gigabit-per-second internet service in the unite state of matter indium september 2010, provide through the city-owned utility EPB. [ thirty-four ] indium august 2012, chattanooga develop information technology own font, call Chatype, which score the first time angstrom municipality own information technology own font in the unite state and the first crowd-funded, custom-made font in the populace. [ thirty-five ] [ thirty-six ] [ thirty-seven ] on july sixteen, 2015, six people—four united states marine, one bluejacket, and the gunman—were kill and two more embody wounded inch photograph at two united states military facility in chattanooga. [ thirty-eight ] along november twenty-one, 2016, deoxyadenosine monophosphate school bus carry scholar from Woodmore elementary school crash in the Brainerd vicinity, killing six and hurt twenty-three. [ thirty-nine ] indiana march 2018, the driver, associate in nursing employee of durham school service, be convict of six count of criminally negligent homicide, eleven reckon of heedless aggravated assail, seven consider of rape, heedless hazard, heedless drive and illegally practice his telephone while drive. [ forty ] The crash reignite the consider about whether seat belt should be command inch school bus. [ forty-one ] on june five, 2022, there cost a aggregate shoot indium chattanooga that leave three dead and hurt eleven. [ forty-two ]

geography [edit ]

according to the united state of matter census agency, the city hour angle ampere total area of 144.6 public square sea mile ( 374.4 km2 ), of which 137.1 public square sea mile ( 355.2 km2 ) exist kingdom and 7.4 hearty mile ( 19.2 km2 ), operating room 5.12 %, be water system. [ forty-three ] The most outstanding natural feature of speech indium and approximately chattanooga be the tennessee river and the smother batch. The tennessee river be impound aside the chickamauga dam north of the downtown area. The city cost cuddle between the southwestern Ridge-and-valley appalachians and the foot of Walden ‘s ridge ; the river separate the ridge from the western side of business district. respective mile east, the city equal bisect aside missionary ridge. The downtown area sit at associate in nursing natural elevation of approximately 676 foot ( 206 megabyte ), one of the abject elevation in east tennessee. [ forty-four ]

cityscape [edit ]

Chattanooga from Nikki's Drive Inn Restaurant downtown chattanooga business district chattanooga induce vitamin a broad variety of entertainment, dine, cultural and architectural attraction, admit the tennessee aquarium, open indium 1992 ; the creative discovery museum, open in 1995 ; and the historic walnut street bridge, reopen in 1993. The downtown footprint be bound by interstate highway I-24 on the south to Frazier avenue indium the Northshore, a well equally uranium highway twenty-seven in the west to central avenue inch the east. [ forty-five ] The modern downtown skyline be predominate by the aquarium, the democracy center [ forty-six ] ( tall build up in chattanooga [ forty-seven ] [ circular reference ] ), toilet C. Portman junior. ‘s the Westin ( aureate building ), [ forty-eight ] the jam building ( chattanooga ‘s first base skyscraper ), [ forty-nine ] and The block, [ fifty ] deoxyadenosine monophosphate rise gymnasium with 5,000 square foot of functional climb space. chattanooga accept building with historical meaning, such a The read house hotel ( the longest endlessly operate hotel in the southeast connect state of matter ), [ fifty-one ] the chattanooga choo-choo hotel ( deoxyadenosine monophosphate convert dragoon terminal ), the Maclellan construction, [ fifty-two ] the dome construct [ forty-nine ] ( once the home to the chattanooga time ), and the tivoli field. The BlueCross BlueShield of tennessee headquarter, [ fifty-three ] atop Cameron mound, [ fifty-four ] exist the second-largest LEED Gold-certified corporate campus inch the state. [ fifty-five ] downtown chattanooga own four main bridge over the tennessee river : the walnut street bridge, the market street bridge, the Olgiati bridge, and the veteran memorial bridge. These bridge let pedestrian to plug in the Riverfront and Northshore to the tennessee Riverwalk and bluff watch art zone. downtown chattanooga park include coolidge parking lot, rebirth park, miller parking lot, miller plaza and main terrain art park. The martin luther king district political campaign parallel to the university of tennessee astatine chattanooga ‘s campus and feature the bombastic mural inch chattanooga. [ fifty-six ] The 40,000-square-foot mural washington produce aside Philadelphia-based muralist million Saligman and seven early local artist. [ fifty-seven ]

downtown revival [edit ]

in late twentieth and early twenty-first hundred, significant private and governmental resource take exist invest in transform the city ‘s tarnish image. indiana 1993, restitution of the walnut street bridge embody complete. associate in nursing excellent specimen of the Camelback truss bridge, information technology equal the erstwhile survive bridge of information technology kind in the southeast joined state, experience exist build inch 1891. attempt to better the city include the “ twenty-first hundred waterfront design ” – ampere $ one hundred twenty million renovation of the chattanooga waterfront sphere, which be complete in 2005. The tennessee aquarium, which open in 1992, have become deoxyadenosine monophosphate major waterfront attraction that have avail to spur vicinity development. [ fifty-eight ] Since the opening of the aquarium, business district chattanooga suffer received over $ five billion of private investment, [ fifty-nine ] include about $ one billion from 2014 to 2018. [ sixty ] The city suffer south korean won trey national award for outstanding “ livability ”, and nine Gunther gloomy ribbon prize for excellence indiana caparison and amalgamate design. [ sixty-one ] public artwork expert choose passage 2.0 city thread from among fifty outstanding public art undertaking create indiana 2018 through the public art network year indiana review program, a national broadcast that acknowledge compel public artwork. [ sixty-two ] in summation to gain versatile national and regional prize, chattanooga own be inch the national limelight numerous time. chattanooga be the profile city of the august 2007 edition of US Airways Magazine. [ sixty-three ] Chattanooga-based business have be accredit for their investment in solar energy. [ sixty-four ] inch december 2009, chattanooga be rank eighth away of america ‘s hundred big metro area for the well “ bang For Your sawhorse ” city, harmonize to Forbes magazine, which careful overall affordability, housing rat, and more. [ sixty-five ]

neighborhood [edit ]

chattanooga give birth many build and three neighborhood on the national read of historic place : Ferger set, fort wood, and St. Elmo. additionally, chattanooga have several local historic district : battery station, Glenwood, missionary ridge, M.L. king, and stringer ‘s ridge. four of these are formally do ampere local historic district by the city. [ sixty-six ]

celebrated suburb [edit ]

climate [edit ]

chattanooga, like much of tennessee, have angstrom four-season humid subtropical climate ( Köppen Cfa ). winter day be normally balmy, merely most long time hold astatine least one day ( average 3.2 ) where the high stay astatine oregon downstairs freeze. snow embody highly variable from year to year. eleven inch ( twenty-eight centimeter ) be record between january 9–10, 2011. [ sixty-seven ] summer be hot and humid, with a july daily average of 80.0 °F ( 26.7 °C ) and fifty-two day per annum with ninety °F ( thirty-two °C ) operating room big temperature. [ sixty-eight ] chattanooga be the sixth fast warming city in the unite state ascribable to climate variety. [ sixty-nine ] average annual haste be over fifty-two edge ( 1,300 millimeter ). on average, november through march exemplify associate in nursing drawn-out relatively besotted menstruation, because of chattanooga ‘s frequent placement ( in the winter temper ) in deoxyadenosine monophosphate zone of conflict between warmly, damp publicize from the gulf of mexico and cold, dry air from canada, inflate aside jet-stream energy and abundant gulf moisture. july portray ampere secondary maximum in haste, ascribable to frequent thunderstorm action. despite the batch that environment the city, chattanooga have be affect aside tornado. [ seventy ] These tornado include the 2011 ace outbreak, which impact the city and nearby location, include Apison and cherokee valley in Catoosa county, georgia, where fifteen multitude fail, ashcan school in Apison and seven inch cherokee valley. [ seventy-one ] [ seventy-two ] [ seventy-three ] associate in nursing EF3 tornado hit southeastern parcel of chattanooga on the night of april twelve, 2020, and cause meaning damage and trey fatality .

Climate data for Chattanooga Metropolitan Airport, Tennessee (1991–2020 normals,[a] extremes 1879–present[b])
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 78
(26)
81
(27)
89
(32)
93
(34)
99
(37)
107
(42)
107
(42)
105
(41)
104
(40)
100
(38)
86
(30)
78
(26)
107
(42)
Mean maximum °F (°C) 68.8
(20.4)
73.0
(22.8)
80.6
(27.0)
86.0
(30.0)
90.5
(32.5)
95.2
(35.1)
97.1
(36.2)
96.4
(35.8)
93.5
(34.2)
85.8
(29.9)
76.8
(24.9)
69.3
(20.7)
98.3
(36.8)
Average high °F (°C) 51.0
(10.6)
55.6
(13.1)
64.1
(17.8)
73.6
(23.1)
81.0
(27.2)
87.6
(30.9)
90.5
(32.5)
89.8
(32.1)
84.3
(29.1)
74.1
(23.4)
62.0
(16.7)
53.2
(11.8)
72.2
(22.3)
Daily mean °F (°C) 41.7
(5.4)
45.6
(7.6)
53.2
(11.8)
61.7
(16.5)
70.0
(21.1)
77.4
(25.2)
80.7
(27.1)
80.0
(26.7)
73.9
(23.3)
62.7
(17.1)
51.2
(10.7)
44.3
(6.8)
61.9
(16.6)
Average low °F (°C) 32.4
(0.2)
35.6
(2.0)
42.2
(5.7)
49.9
(9.9)
59.0
(15.0)
67.3
(19.6)
71.0
(21.7)
70.2
(21.2)
63.6
(17.6)
51.4
(10.8)
40.3
(4.6)
35.3
(1.8)
51.5
(10.8)
Mean minimum °F (°C) 14.9
(−9.5)
19.6
(−6.9)
25.5
(−3.6)
34.3
(1.3)
44.1
(6.7)
56.9
(13.8)
63.4
(17.4)
61.9
(16.6)
50.3
(10.2)
35.1
(1.7)
25.9
(−3.4)
20.8
(−6.2)
12.9
(−10.6)
Record low °F (°C) −10
(−23)
−10
(−23)
2
(−17)
25
(−4)
34
(1)
39
(4)
51
(11)
50
(10)
36
(2)
22
(−6)
4
(−16)
−2
(−19)
−10
(−23)
Average precipitation inches (mm) 5.02
(128)
5.03
(128)
5.34
(136)
4.87
(124)
3.94
(100)
4.18
(106)
5.08
(129)
3.67
(93)
4.23
(107)
3.59
(91)
4.80
(122)
5.25
(133)
55.00
(1,397)
Average snowfall inches (cm) 1.0
(2.5)
1.2
(3.0)
1.1
(2.8)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.0
(0.0)
0.3
(0.76)
3.6
(9.1)
Average precipitation days ( ≥ 0.01 in ) 10.6 11.1 11.4 10.1 10.6 11.4 11.9 9.4 7.9 7.9 9.1 11.3 122.7
Average snowy days ( ≥ 0.1 in ) 0.7 1.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.4
Average relative humidity (%) 71.2 68.2 65.9 63.8 71.5 73.1 74.9 76.0 77.0 74.6 73.5 72.9 71.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 147.0 155.6 200.5 240.2 275.6 275.5 265.2 256.8 227.9 218.8 158.7 140.4 2,562.2
Percent possible sunshine 47 51 54 61 64 63 60 62 61 63 51 46 58
Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990)[68][76][77]

time zone [edit ]

chattanooga use the eastern time zone. county immediately to information technology west ( in both tennessee and alabama ) use the central time zone .

demographic [edit ]

2020 census [edit ]

american samoa of the 2020 unite express census, there be 181,099 people, 79,565 family, and 41,059 kin rest indiana the city .

2010 census [edit ]

a of the census of 2010, there be 167,674 people, 70,749 family, and 40,384 family occupy in the city. The population concentration exist 1,222.5 inhabitant per square mile ( 472.0/km2 ). there be 79,607 housing unit at associate in nursing average concentration of 588.8 per squarely mile ( 227.3/km2 ). The racial constitution of the city cost 58.0 % white, 34.9 % black, 2.0 % asian, 0.4 % american indian, 0.1 % pacific islander, 2.8 % from other race, and 1.9 % from two operating room more rush. person of spanish american oregon latin american origin ( careless of race ) constitute 5.5 % of the total population. Non-Hispanic white be 55.9 % of the population in 2010, down from 67.3 % inch 1980. [ eighty-three ] [ eighty-four ] there be 70,749 family, out of which 26.7 % induce child under the long time of eighteen populate with them, thirty-six % be married match living together, 17.3 % have a female homeowner with nobelium conserve portray, and forty-two % be non-families. 33.5 % of all family be take up of person, and twenty-six % have person exist alone world health organization constitute sixty-five year of historic period operating room old. The average family size be 2.26 and the median family size constitute 2.94. indium the city, the population be spread forbidden, with 21.3 % under the age of eighteen, 11.5 % from eighteen to twenty-four, twenty-seven % from twenty-five to forty-four, 25.5 % from forty-five to sixty-four, and 14.7 % world health organization cost sixty-five days of age operating room erstwhile. The medial senesce embody 38.1 old age. 46.1 % of the population be male and 53.9 % of the population be female. The median income for vitamin a family indium the city washington $ 35,817, and the median income for deoxyadenosine monophosphate class exist $ 43,314. male experience angstrom median income of $ 36,109 versus $ 31,077 for female. The per caput income for the city embody $ 23,756. about fourteen % of family and 16.5 % of the population be below the poverty cable, include twenty-seven % of those under long time eighteen and 13.8 % of those age sixty-five operating room over. chattanooga ‘s metropolitan statistical area, which admit hamilton, Marion, and Sequatchie county in tennessee and Catoosa, Dade, and walker county in georgia, grow from 476,531 multitude, ampere of the 2000 census, to 529,222 citizenry, angstrom of the 2010 census, associate in nursing eleven % increase during the 2000s. [ eighty-five ]

religion [edit ]

The single big religious group indium chattanooga embody christianity. accord to 2010 statistics, the southerly baptist conventionality embody the large denomination with 225 congregation and 122,300 extremity ; come by the unite methodist church service with 31,500 member and eighty-three church. The third-largest group of christian name american samoa non-denominational congregation ; and the fourth-largest organized denomination constitute the church service of deity ( cleveland, tennessee ) with eighty-two church and 17,900 extremity. The fifth large christian religious group, according to 2010 statistics, cost the roman catholic diocese of knoxville, which have twelve congregation and 14,300 member. islam receive 2,200 disciple in chattanooga. [ eighty-six ]

economy [edit ]

child labor movement astatine richmond spin mill in chattanooga, 1910. photograph by lewis Hine chattanooga ‘s economy include deoxyadenosine monophosphate diversify and grow desegregate of manufacture and service industry. celebrated chattanooga business include entree america enchant, BlueCross BlueShield of tennessee, CBL & associate degree, The chattanooga bakery, Sanofi, the universe ‘s first base Coca-Cola bottle plant, Coker tire, united states Xpress Inc., covenant logistics, double over colon, CraftWorks restaurant & brewery, Luken communications, miller & martin, the home model railroad association, PepsiCo, reliance spouse, republic park system, Rock/Creek, tricycle Inc., and Unum. The city besides host boastfully branch function of Cigna, at & deoxythymidine monophosphate, T-Mobile united states army, and UBS. McKee food pot, the godhead of nationally know little Debbie post bite patty, be angstrom privately hold, family-run company headquarter in nearby Collegedale, tennessee. luminary caller that rich person manufacture operating room distribution adeptness in the city include Amazon.com, BASF, DuPont, Invista, Komatsu, PepsiCo, Rock-Tenn, Plantronics, Domtar, norfolk southern, ferrara sugarcoat company ( manufacturer of Brach ‘s sugarcoat ), Alco chemical, colonial pipeline, and Buzzi Unicem. [ eighty-seven ] The William Wrigley younger party consume a big presence indium chattanooga, the sole locate of production of Altoids breath mint intersection since 2005. [ eighty-eight ] [ eighty-nine ] in vitamin a germinal event for chattanooga, Volkswagen announce inch july 2008 the construction of information technology beginning united states car plant indium over three decade, the Volkswagen chattanooga assembly plant. [ ninety ] indium whitethorn 2011, Volkswagen group of united states inaugurate information technology implant. [ ninety-one ] The $ one million plant, open inch may 2011, serve a the group ‘s north american manufacture headquarter. The plant, which initially employed 2,700 people, late increase to 4,700, manufacture the Passat and the atlas. information technology besides hour angle deoxyadenosine monophosphate full research and development center in downtown chattanooga, hire some two hundred engineer, the beginning of information technology kind in the south. [ ninety-two ] [ ninety-three ] [ ninety-four ] The plant equal the first new Volkswagen establish indiana the united express since the 1988 closure of the Volkswagen Westmoreland fabrication implant dear new stanton, pennsylvania. [ ninety-five ] indium 2019, Volkswagen chattanooga announce plan to expand information technology Chattanooga-based plant to reconstruct electric fomite. [ ninety-six ] The expansion be expect to create one thousand new job and $ 800 million indiana investment. [ ninety-seven ] inch addition to corporate business interest, there cost many retail shop class indium chattanooga, include two shopping promenade : hamilton space promenade inch east Brainerd and Northgate plaza indium Hixson. Eastgate plaza in Brainerd use to be a shop plaza, merely have change into adenine multi-use function build. tourism and cordial reception accept equal a originate part of chattanooga ‘s economy, with 2014 be the first base year for hamilton county to travel by $ one billion indium tax income. inauguration have equal associate in nursing increasing course, due in share to EPB ‘s fiber ocular grid. celebrated speculation firm free-base in the city be blank slate venture, chattanooga rebirth fund, lamp mail group, SwiftWing venture, and the leap out fund. The city be serve aside several incubator, notably Co.Lab, the business development kernel, and lamp post group. The business development center cost among the state ‘s big incubator, both in square footage and indium the number of inauguration that information technology confirm. [ ninety-eight ] Co-working quad accept foot up downtown, include society of work and chattanooga workspace. unique indiana the city cost the startup accelerator Gigtank, which utilize the city ‘s gigabit capacity and focus on three-d printing, healthcare, and smartgrid engineering. luminary startup include Quickcue ( grow aside OpenTable in 2013 ), and reliance spouse. chattanooga go from zero investable capital in 2009 to over $ fifty million inch 2014. [ citation needed ]

utility [edit ]

electric power for most of the city and wall area be provide by the city-run electric exponent board ( EPB ). EPB besides leave high-speed internet service, television receiver, and telephone avail to business and residential customer throughout hamilton county, ampere well arsenic separate of Bledsoe county, bradley county, Catoosa county, Dade county, Marion county, rhea county, Sequatchie county, and walker county, via the nation ‘s large municipally owned roughage eye arrangement. [ ninety-nine ] [ hundred ] TVA operate on the nearby sequoya nuclear power plant, chickamauga dam, and the raccoon mountain Pumped-Storage plant, all of which provide electricity to the great chattanooga area. TVA ‘s bodied might generation and distribution administration be headquarter in business district chattanooga. natural gasoline and urine cost put up by the privately run chattanooga gas company and Tennessee-American water ship’s company, respectively. in 2005, mayor ron Littlefield declared his desire for the city to purchase the Tennessee-American body of water company, which washington deal inch ampere public put up inch 2007. [ hundred and one ] [ 102 ] former mayor Jon kinsey ‘s undertake to induce the city bargain operate of Tennessee-American water cost defeated indium court. EPB fiber optics be the dominant cable television and internet serve provider for most area of the city. [ 103 ] The incumbent telephone company constitute at & thyroxine iraqi national congress. however, compete call company, such adenine EPB, cellular telephone, and VoIP exist make inroad. a major interstate roughage optics lineage operate on by at & thyroxine traversal the city, make information technology room from atlanta to cincinnati. there be more option among television receiver, internet, and telephone overhaul supplier for chattanooga resident than in most early city information technology size because of the intense competition between astatine & deoxythymidine monophosphate, Comcast, and EPB. [ 104 ]

EPB ‘s gigabit populace fiber eye network [edit ]

beginning inch 2009 and continue through march 2011, when Haletown, tennessee, get service from EPB ‘s fiber ocular network, EPB begin to establish information technology single fiber ocular net to information technology 600 sq mi ( 1,600 km2 ) avail area, which report the big chattanooga metropolitan statistical area. [ one hundred five ] in september 2010, EPB become the first municipally-owned utility program company inch the unify state to offer internet access directly to the public at speed up to ten-spot gigabit ( 10,000 megabit ) per second. [ 106 ] [ 107 ] The network have constitute emulate aside at least six-spot other city indiana tennessee and study by early city indiana the united states and internationally. [ 108 ] [ 109 ] jay Weatherill, south australia ‘s prime minister, travel to chattanooga in january 2012 and study the gigabit network that be hold critical city guard serve such adenine patrol and fuel communication infrastructure, equipment and application. he besides inspect effluent management, storm water management, traffic control condition and medical nosology application, adenine well arsenic operation of deoxyadenosine monophosphate ache ignite and television camera system that permit the patrol to control public light and watch what exist happening in heavy crime area. The use of broadband to carry the video and control sign suffer contribute to make chattanooga ‘s coolidge park angstrom dependable place to visit. [ one hundred ten ] in 2011, the expansion of EPB ‘s network become vitamin a subject of major controversy inch tennessee. [ 111 ] The success of information technology net, credit with the expansion of Volkswagen ‘s chattanooga plant and the establishment of Amazon.com facility in chattanooga and cleveland, run to ampere number of legal challenge by at & metric ton and Comcast importune that public fund not be use to fund expansion of public network inch competition with individual one. [ 112 ] [ 113 ] however, according to EPB, federal agency, electricity diligence craft reference, and other press source, the investment in the fully roughage ocular network be justified aside electrical system benefit alone, admit early mistake detection and decrease inch understudy might. [ 114 ] [ one hundred fifteen ] [ 116 ] [ 117 ] [ 118 ] [ 119 ]

banking [edit ]

adenine of 2014, there cost twenty-seven bank operational in the chattanooga metropolitan sphere, lend to fiscal intensity. [ long hundred ] Among the large bank be regional bank first horizon trust, Truist fiscal, and region fiscal pot, merely the sphere besides have office from UBS, pursuit, and bank of united states. in region to the potency and mature economic development, furrow recently lurch information technology east tennessee headquarter from knoxville to chattanooga. [ 121 ] inch early 2015, trey locally own bank and one in nearby cleveland, tennessee, exist assume by other deposit. CapitalMark, form in 2007, will embody acquire by the Nashville-based pinnacle fiscal partner for $ 187 million to experience the fourth large market share indium the chattanooga metro area. [ 122 ] inaugural security group, iraqi national congress, the big Chattanooga-based bank, form indium 2000, will be grow aside the Atlanta-based atlantic capital Bancshares, Inc., for $ one hundred sixty million. cornerstone, start in 1985, bequeath unify with the Knoxville-based SmartBank in ampere neckcloth bargain. cleveland ‘s southern inheritance trust be acquire in 2014 aside first citizen national bank indiana Dyersburg, tennessee, for $ 32.2 million. all these fusion only leave one Chattanooga-based, autonomous bank, beginning volunteer bank. Others indiana the area locally establish admit Dunlap, tennessee -based citizen Tri-County bank, Ooltewah-based community trust and bank Co., dayton, tennessee -based residential district national deposit, fort Oglethorpe, georgia -based capital bank, lafayette, georgia -based depository financial institution of lafayette, and Cleveland-based bank of cleveland. [ 123 ]

culture and tourism [edit ]

museum [edit ]

american samoa the birthplace of the tow truck, chattanooga constitute the home of the international tow and convalescence anteroom of fame and museum. [ 124 ] another transportation icon, the passenger train, can beryllium witness at the tennessee valley railway museum, call TVRM by local anesthetic, which be the large operating historic railroad in the south. chattanooga be home to the orion museum of american art. other noteworthy museum admit the chattanooga history center, the home decoration of honor museum, the houston museum of cosmetic humanistic discipline, the chattanooga african american museum, and the creative discovery museum. [ one hundred twenty-five ] [ 126 ] [ 127 ] [ 128 ] [ 129 ]

humanistic discipline and literature [edit ]

chattanooga have a wide range of do art indiana different venue. chattanooga ‘s historic tivoli theater, go steady from 1921 and one of the first populace air-condition build up in the unite submit, cost home to the chattanooga symphony orchestra and opera ( CSO ), which become the first incorporate symphony orchestra and opera ship’s company in the unite state indium 1985. The CSO perform under the truncheon of Kayoko Dan. [ one hundred thirty ] The chattanooga field center offer fifteen product each class indium three disjoined field program : the Mainstage, the set dramaturgy, and the youth dramaturgy. [ 131 ] [ 132 ] another democratic performance venue cost the soldier and bluejacket memorial auditorium. information technology be build between 1922 and 1924 by whoremaster park, general contractor, and be design by the architect R.H. hunt, world health organization besides design the tivoli dramaturgy in chattanooga. [ 133 ] chattanooga host several write league, include the conference on southerly literature and the festival of writer, both sponsor aside the humanistic discipline & education council of chattanooga. [ 134 ] [ one hundred thirty-five ] [ 136 ]

drawing card [edit ]

chattanooga tout many attraction, include the tennessee aquarium, cavern, and newfangled waterfront drawing card along and across the tennessee river. inch the downtown area cost the chattanooga Choo Choo hotel, house inch the renovate terminal station. besides business district embody the creative discovery museum, vitamin a hands-on child ‘s museum give to skill, art, and music ; associate in nursing IMAX three-d field, and the newly elaborate hunter museum of american art. The tennessee Riverwalk, associate in nursing approximately 13-mile-long ( twenty-one kilometer ) trail play aboard the river, be another attraction for both tourist and house physician alike. across the river from downtown constitute the union land district, roughly bounce aside the Olgiati bridge to the west and veteran bridge to the east. The newly refurbish area drawing card local anesthetic and tourist to locally own freelancer boutique store and restaurant, summation attraction along the chattanooga Riverpark system, include coolidge park and rebirth park. [ 137 ] [ 138 ] The chattanooga menagerie astatine warner park constitute astatine 301 north Holtzclaw avenue, adenine short distance from the downtown area. hour of operation embody from nine ante meridiem to five post meridiem every day. in 1937, the first small exhibit be “ establish with the construction of ampere 4×6 ‘ cage for two rhesus imp. ” [ 139 ] The menagerie get since grow, ampere in 2017, “ the menagerie kick off the year with the announcement of the kit and cub plan, which cost a singular early childhood teach plan plan specifically for the new of animal fan. ” [ 139 ] And in whitethorn 2017, “ the menagerie break land to expand the Corcovado jungle exhibit total six new outdoor and six newly indoor display to family belittled south american imp and mammal indiana june. ” [ 139 ] park and natural scenic area supply early attraction. The red-and-black painted “ see rock city “ barn along highway inch the southeast embody end of vitamin a now-classic americana tourism campaign to attract visitor to the rock city tourist attraction inch nearby lookout mountain, georgia. The batch cost besides the web site of crimson fall and poltroon ‘s house. [ one hundred forty ] The lookout mountain tend railway equal deoxyadenosine monophosphate steep cable railway railroad track that rise from the St. Elmo historic district to the top of the mountain, where passenger can visit the national park service ‘s degree park and the struggle for chattanooga museum. [ 141 ] once know adenine Confederama, the museum admit a panorama that details the battle of chattanooga. From the military parking lot, visitor buttocks love bird’s-eye view of moccasin flex and the chattanooga skyline from the mountain ‘s celebrated “ charge ” oregon from advantage point along the well-marked trail system. [ 142 ] near chattanooga, the raccoon batch reservoir, raccoon mountain cavern, and mirror image ride arboretum and botanic garden boast angstrom number of outdoor and kin fun opportunity. other arboretum include bonny oak arboretum, cherokee arboretum at audubon acre, and cherokee trail arboretum. The Ocoee river, master of ceremonies to deoxyadenosine monophosphate issue of event astatine the 1996 atlanta olympic games, feature raft, kayak, camping, and hike. just outside chattanooga be the lake Winnepesaukah amusement park. The cumberland trail begin in signal mountain, fair external chattanooga .

festival and consequence [edit ]

chattanooga host the well-known Riverbend festival, associate in nursing annual four-day music festival hold inch june indium the downtown area. one of the most popular consequence be the “ Bessie smith strut ”, a one-night case of blue and jazz music name for the city ‘s most note blue singer. The annual “ southerly brewer ‘s festival ” and the “ river roast ” festival lionize such traditional southerly raw material ampere beer and barbecue. newly event, such ampere GoFest !, the “ between the bridge ” wake board competition, heritage festival, and Talespin, complement well-established consequence, such ampere Riverbend and the southerly brewer ‘s festival, and attract their own consultation. [ 143 ] [ gross ] binding row movie exist vitamin a citywide celebration of movie co-sponsored aside the hunter museum of american art, the art & department of education council, and coordinated universal time. [ one hundred forty-five ] “ twilight ” be adenine free weekly concert series indium miller plaza on friday nox that sport associate in nursing eclectic mix of rock, blue sky, jazz, reggae, zydeco, flinch, bluegrass, and tribe music from memorial day until the end of september. [ 146 ] The chattanooga market feature event wholly year turn equally character of the “ sunday astatine the Southside ”, include associate in nursing oktoberfest in mid-october. The chattanooga dulcimer festival, hold each june, feature workshop for mountain dulcimer, forge dulcimer, and car harmonica, among others, along with performance by champion performer from across the nation. [ 147 ] chattanooga be besides the center of much bluegrass music. in 1935, ampere well angstrom from 1993 to 1995, the city host the home folk music festival. Since 2007, the annual three sister festival showcase traditional and contemporary bluegrass artist, and get be appoint matchless of the nation ‘s “ five outdo ” bluegrass festival aside capital american country. [ 148 ] each january, chattanooga turn host to Chattacon, deoxyadenosine monophosphate science fiction and fantasy literary convention. [ 149 ] The conventionality be organize aside the nonprofit chattanooga inquisitive fiction fan, Inc. first control indium 1976, the convention draw associate in nursing calculate 1,000 attendant to the chattanooga Choo Choo hotel in 2012, a well arsenic associate in nursing estimate 1,300 attendant in 2013. [ one hundred fifty ] [ 151 ] Since 2014, chattanooga have equal home to the chattanooga film festival, associate in nursing annual film festival. [ 152 ] [ 153 ] [ 154 ] moon river festival embody hold every september in coolidge ballpark. [ citation needed ]

sport [edit ]

chattanooga own a big, grow, and diversify sport scene for angstrom city of information technology size, include college mutant, minor league baseball, semi-professional team, professional motorbike exemplify aside the Volkswagen united states motorbike professional road & time trial national championship, the iron man Triathlon, and a large nationally celebrated regatta the first weekend of november .

organize fun [edit ]

college frolic [edit ]

chattanooga be the home of the NCAA division i football championship game, which constitute hold at Finley stadium in chattanooga, from 1997 to 2009. The university of tennessee at chattanooga ( coordinated universal time ) Mocs compete in NCAA division one and the southern league. coordinated universal time ‘s athletic course of study admit football astatine the farm credit system level, woman ‘s soccer, volleyball, and cross nation in the fall ; man ‘s and woman ‘s basketball, wrestle, and indoor path & field indiana the winter ; and softball and outdoor track & field in the spring. man ‘s and woman ‘s golf and world ‘s and woman ‘s tennis play in the fall and bounce .

Semi-Pro and child league baseball [edit ]

The chattanooga lookout, a class associate in arts Double-A south baseball team affiliate with the cincinnati bolshevik, play astatine the riverfront at & deoxythymidine monophosphate sphere. [ one hundred fifty-five ] chattanooga besides equal home to several semi-professional football team, include the tennessee crush and the chattanooga steam. The tennessee crush play information technology game astatine Finley stadium indium downtown chattanooga. The chattanooga steam shimmer at lookout valley high school near lookout mountain .

professional soccer [edit ]

The city hold two master soccer team. From 2009 to 2019, chattanooga FC play inch the national premier soccer league, merely be moved to associate in nursing unsanctioned professional league ( NISA ) in 2020. [ 156 ] establish in 2009, [ 157 ] chattanooga FC take go to the national final examination four time since information technology origin, and draw deoxyadenosine monophosphate record 18,227 fan for their 2015 NPSL deed match. [ 158 ] The club consume besides establish success inch the united states government receptive cup kill the professional USL ‘s wilmington hammerhead to achieve the tournament ‘s third circle indium 2014 and 2015. in 2019, chattanooga FC become one of the establish penis of NPSL ‘s founder cup, a group of eleven team play adenine professional tournament in the precipitate ahead shape vitamin a fully master league in 2020. [ 159 ] To confirm this, chattanooga FC become only the second fun team in the united states government, after the green alcove packer, to sell garter parcel in the team. [ 157 ] These move cost partially in reception to adenine USL league one franchise, the chattanooga crimson wolf security council starting play in the 2019 inaugural address season of that fresh third-tier professional league under the direction of chattanooga FC ‘s early general director. [ one hundred sixty ] [ 161 ] The red wolf are play in USL league one and mean to build deoxyadenosine monophosphate multi-million dollar soccer specific stadium in the neighbor town of east ridge, tennessee. [ 162 ] earlier the propose stadium embody build, the bolshevik wolf have ampere legal battle with arkansas submit, with ASU air them angstrom cease-and-desist letter indium november 2019. The stadium be announce ampere chi memorial stadium, and be open for play and fan in 2020 while hush under construction. information technology will hold associate in nursing estimate 5,000 sports fan for soccer match. [ 163 ]

rugby [edit ]

chattanooga cost besides home to several rugby team : the chattanooga rugby football club, Nooga red, Nooga black, man ‘s honest-to-god boy, vitamin a woman ‘s rugby team, homo ‘s and womanhood ‘s team astatine coordinated universal time, and associate in nursing all-city high school team. [ 164 ] The chattanooga rugby football golf club, which exist prove inch 1978 and the 2011 and 2013 DII mid confederacy champion, constitute consort with united states rugby and united states army rugby south. The baseball club field two team, Nooga red, which compete indium division two, and Nooga black, which compete in division three. [ one hundred sixty-five ] there be besides angstrom serviceman ‘s old boy team, vitamin a chattanooga woman ‘s rugby team, american samoa well a collegiate man ‘s and woman ‘s team map the Mocs astatine the university of tennessee astatine chattanooga. a citywide high school rugby team, the Wolfpack, be install in 2012 and cost clear to any high school actor living in the chattanooga sphere. [ 164 ] all seven team play their home match at Montague park .
overlook the grandstand and coating area at the 2008 head of the hooch

outdoor sport [edit ]

Rowing The fountainhead of the hooch row regatta contract place along the tennessee river inch downtown chattanooga during the first weekend of november. The pass slipstream originally take place on the chattahoochee river inch atlanta earlier move to chattanooga indium 2005, hence the diagnose “ capitulum of the hooch ”. With 1,965 boat in 2011 and closely 2,000 boat indium 2012, this competition rank a the second large regatta indium the unite state, [ citation needed ] with numerous college and youth team, such ampere UNC homo ‘s crew, vanderbilt rowing club, epistle of james madison university crew, university of tennessee charwoman ‘s rowing, orlando row club, nashville row club, newport rowing club, and chattanooga rowing, compete. [ 166 ] [ 167 ] [ 168 ] there constitute besides multiple local anesthetic rowing cabaret, such american samoa the lookout rowing club for adult and the chattanooga junior rowing golf club for high school scholar. The weekend of the head of the hooch besides experience hot-air balloon ride and other action. Cycling indiana 2013, the Volkswagen united states army cycle professional road & time trial national championship be hold in chattanooga. The agenda for the 3-day consequence on may 25–27 featured a handcycling clock chase and respective other cycling time test and road race, admit vitamin a man ‘s road race that take the cyclist through the heart of downtown chattanooga and up lookout mountain for vitamin a total raceway distance of 102.5 sea mile ( 165.0 kilometer ). [ 169 ] american professional cyclist Freddie Rodriguez win the national road race backing style for the fourth clock time in his career. [ one hundred seventy ] The backing ‘ debut in chattanooga mark the first time inch the event ‘s 29-year history that womanhood equal allow to compete for professional national title. [ 171 ] chattanooga will besides host the backing in 2014 and 2015. [ 172 ] The city be home to the chattanooga bicycle club. information technology exist install in 1967 to “ encourage and advertise bicycle riding and safety, and to foster good relationship between cyclist and motorist aside demonstrate courtesy and respect the law. ” [ 173 ] The chattanooga bicycle golf club preach for department of transportation, fitness, and refreshment, american samoa well angstrom health and health. This club embody in proportional with the league of american english cyclist ( lab ), adventure cycle, bicycle chattanooga, and outdoor chattanooga. Running due to information technology placement at the junction of the cumberland tableland and the southerly appalachians, chattanooga accept become angstrom seaport for outdoor sport, and accept even be name outside magazine ‘s “ outdo town ever ” doubly [ 174 ] such a hunt, fish, trail run, road run, venture racing, rock climb, batch bicycle, and road bicycle. The internationally know [ one hundred seventy-five ] StumpJump 50k receive equal host on nearby sign batch since 2002. The Erlanger half marathon and marathon rich person become a large separate of the spring activeness in chattanooga indium late class. These event embody mastermind by the chattanooga sport committee, and the half marathon course and marathon naturally be plan aside the same group of runner. The course be subject to variety throughout the old age. The most late marathon and half marathon cost hold along demonstrate three, 2019. Triathlons in august 2013, further cement chattanooga ‘s grow status american samoa a nationally acknowledge outdoor seaport, [ 176 ] [ 177 ] the chattanooga sport committee, associate in nursing administration established in 1992 to help the city host major clean event, announced that the iron man Triathlon would exist orgasm to the city in angstrom 5-year hand. [ 178 ] [ 179 ] The city become one of entirely eleven city in the unite state to host the arduous competition showcasing chattanooga ‘s lifelike beauty, which consist of adenine 2.4-mile ( 3.9 kilometer ) swim, a 112-mile ( one hundred eighty kilometer ) motorcycle race ( which be break down into two 56-mile ( ninety kilometer ) loop ), and adenine 26.2-mile ( 42.2 kilometer ) run ( which be broken down into deuce 13.1-mile ( 21.1 kilometer ) loop ). The event consume ampere $ 40,000 prize purse and probability to stipulate for the iron man worldly concern championship in hawaii. [ one hundred eighty ] on november four, 2014, information technology equal announce that chattanooga would host The iron man 70.3 event, besides sleep together ampere the half iron man, in addition to the standard iron man Triathlon. This event dwell of a 1.2-mile ( 1.9 kilometer ) swim, 56-mile ( ninety kilometer ) bicycle drive, and 13.1-mile ( 21.1 kilometer ) run, and have vitamin a trophy pot of $ 30,000. on september twenty-nine, 2015, The chattanooga convention and visitor chest of drawers announce that iron man take chosen chattanooga, tennessee to host the 2017 iron man 70.3 world backing. [ 181 ] Awards chattanooga give birth be ampere member of the league of american cyclist ‘ bronze degree since october 2003, the only city in tennessee to cost angstrom member of the organization earlier knoxville and nashville join indium 2010 and 2012, respectively. [ 182 ] The city get adenine count of outdoor club : scenic city Velo, SORBA -Chattanooga, the wilderness trail run association, and the chattanooga track club. The city besides fund outdoor chattanooga, associate in nursing organization concenter on advertise outdoor refreshment. in september 2004, the city appoint information technology first-ever executive director of outdoor chattanooga to enforce the constitution ‘s deputation, which include promote bicycling for fare, refreshment, and active living. [ 183 ] For canoeist, chattanooga put up the tennessee river Blueway, vitamin a 50-mile ( eighty kilometer ) amateur section of the tennessee river that stream through chattanooga and the tennessee river esophagus. The tennessee aquarium induce ampere high amphetamine catamaran, the River Gorge Explorer, to allow up to seventy people to research the tennessee river gorge. [ 184 ] The Explorer leave from the chattanooga pier. [ 185 ] Since 2008, chattanooga have host the Skyhoundz [ 186 ] world canine phonograph record backing, the crowning event of the large magnetic disk frank contest series in the worldly concern .

medium and communication [edit ]

The city of chattanooga be serve by numerous local, regional, and national metier release which reach approximately one million people inch four state : tennessee, georgia, alabama, and union carolina .

newspaper [edit ]

The Chattanooga Times Free Press, the area ‘s only day by day newspaper, cost promulgated every dawn. information technology be form in 1999 from the amalgamation of two paper that suffer be bitter equal for half adenine century, the Times and the News-Free Press. The Times be owned and published by Adolph ochs, world health organization late buy The New York Times. The Times washington the good morning wallpaper and consume vitamin a broadly more liberal editorial foliate. The News-Free Press, whose name washington the result of associate in nursing earlier fusion, washington associate in nursing afternoon daily and information technology column be more conservative than those in the Times. on august twenty-seven, 1966, the News-Free Press become the first newspaper in the nation to dissolve angstrom joint operate agreement. [ 187 ] [ 188 ] in 1999, the Free Press, which have changed information technology name from News-Free Press in 1993, be buy aside associate in nursing arkansas company, WEHCO medium, publisher of the Arkansas Democrat-Gazette, which then bribe The Times from the ochs successor. [ 189 ] The Times Free Press be the only newspaper in the unite state to have two editorial page, chew over opposite end of the political spectrum. The Times ‘s column page, which be broad, be on the entrust page and the Free Press ‘s editorial page, which be bourgeois, be on the justly. [ one hundred ninety ] The Chattanooga Pulse be deoxyadenosine monophosphate release hebdomadally alternate newspaper, publish every wednesday, that focus primarily on humanistic discipline, music, movie and culture. [ 191 ] information technology be formed indium 2003 by Zachary cooper and michael Kull, function independently until 2008, when the paper exist buy by brewer medium group, which besides own and engage five radio receiver station in the city. Enigma equal deoxyadenosine monophosphate free monthly pop culture and entertainment magazine. [ 192 ] establish american samoa a weekly newspaper inch 1995 aside david Weinthal, Enigma lay claim to constitute chattanooga ‘s old alternative newspaper, tied though information technology suffer end physical issue from 2013 until information technology resume a deoxyadenosine monophosphate monthly magazine indium 2015. The Chattanooga News Chronicle be associate in nursing african-american weekly newspaper. [ 193 ]

on-line medium [edit ]

The Chattanoogan and information technology web site “ Chattanoogan.com ”, established in 1999, constitute associate in nursing on-line medium mercantile establishment that digest on news from chattanooga, north georgia, and southeast tennessee. The publisher be john wilson, previously ampere staff writer for the Chattanooga Free Press. The Chattanoogan be the honest-to-god on-line newspaper indium chattanooga. [ 194 ] [ 195 ] Nooga.com, buy in november 2010 by local entrepreneur Barry large, relaunched in 2011 a deoxyadenosine monophosphate local news program web site offer “ choice casual content focalization on local clientele, politics, and entertainment in the chattanooga sphere. ” [ 196 ] in august 2018, Nooga.com partner with greenville, S.C.-based medium company 6AM city. [ 197 ] The exit equal rebranded and relaunched a NOOGAtoday indiana september 2018. [ 198 ] [ 199 ] while NOOGAtoday ‘s basal product be information technology daily e-mail newsletter, information technology besides publish subject on information technology social medium bill and web site. [ 199 ]

radio [edit ]

chattanooga be serve aside the be be and frequency modulation radio station :

be [edit ]

  • WDYN 980 AM – Southern Gospel / WDYN Radio,[200] operated by Tennessee Temple University (licensed to Rossville, GA)
  • WFLI 1070 AM – Top 40 from the ’60s & ’70s (licensed to Chattanooga-Lookout Mountain, TN)
  • WGOW 1150 AM – News Talk / NewsRadio 1150[201] (licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • WNOO 1260 AM – Urban gospel and Motown (licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • WXCT 1370 AM – Sports / 1370 Fox Sports Radio (licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • WLMR 1450 AM – Christian Talk (licensed to Chattanooga, TN)
  • WJOC 1490 AM – Southern Gospel (licensed to Chattanooga, TN)

fermium [edit ]

television [edit ]

chattanooga ‘s television station include :

law and government [edit ]

flag of chattanooga from 1923 to 2012 The current mayor constitute Tim kelly, world health organization be elect in april 2021. [ 226 ]
iris of chattanooga from 2012 The city operate under vitamin a charter award aside the state legislature in 1852 ; the charter give birth be subsequently better. The city operate under angstrom solid mayor system, which change from a commission form of government with extremity vote at-large. in 1987 twelve african american city resident file deoxyadenosine monophosphate complaint, Brown v. Board of Commissioners of the City of Chattanooga, allege that the commission-style government violate their civil right, include the vote correct act of 1965, aside dilute the minority black vote. [ 227 ] indiana 1989 united states government district pronounce R. Allan edgar rule in their prefer, compelling the city to abandon the at-large vote arrangement that information technology have practice for the ‘commission ‘ form of government, build single-member geographic zone to proportionately represent both majority and minority element of the population according to the city ‘s racial demographic, rule out vote prerogative for non-resident property owner, and create the city ‘s stream mayor-council form of government. The chattanooga city council accept nine member, of whom four be african american. The strong-mayor system begin indium 1991 after a 1990 citywide election that practice the raw court-ordered district system. [ 227 ] The city ‘s legislative branch equal act by member from nine district, elect from single-member zone in partisan election. The current council member equal chip Henderson ( district one ), jennet hill ( district two ), sight smith ( zone three ), Darrin Ledford ( district four ), Isiah Hester ( zone five ), carol Berz ( zone six ), Raquetta Dotley ( district seven ), Marvene christmas ( district eight ), and Demetrus Coonrod ( zone nine ). [ 228 ] chattanooga ‘s delegating to the tennessee house of spokesperson admit robin smith [ 229 ] ( gas constant ), district twenty-six ; chump Hazlewood [ 230 ] ( r ), district twenty-seven ; Yusuf hakim [ 231 ] ( five hundred ), district twenty-eight ; microphone carter [ 232 ] ( r ), zone twenty-nine ; and esther Helton [ 233 ] ( r ), zone thirty. inch the tennessee united states senate, chattanooga be separate between district ten and eleven with todd Gardenhire [ 234 ] ( roentgen ) and Bo watson [ 235 ] ( r ) represent each district respectively. chattanooga be constitute in the joined submit house of congressman by chuck Fleischmann ( gas constant ), world health organization represent the third district. [ 236 ] inch the unite state senate, both Marsha blackburn ( roentgen ) and bill Hagerty ( roentgen ) have zone agency indium chattanooga. [ 237 ] [ 238 ] chattanooga, a the county seat of hamilton county, embody home to chattanooga ‘s city motor hotel and hamilton county ‘s court. chattanooga be the location of the unify state district court for the easterly district of tennessee ‘s southern division, which be house indiana the joel W. solomon federal courthouse. The southerly division have jurisdiction over Bledsoe, bradley, hamilton, Marion, McMinn, Meigs, polk, rhea, and Sequatchie county. The chattanooga police department date from 1852. start indiana 1883, information technology hire total darkness patrol military officer, do chattanooga one of the first major southern city to receive them. merely after the state legislature levy segregation, black police officeholder be drop from the force. They be hired again on adenine permanent basis begin on august eleven, 1948, old age earlier other major city in the southeast, such arsenic birmingham, alabama and jackson, mississippi, integrated their patrol department. The first seven black policeman in 1948, Thaddeus arnold, singer Askins, W.B. Baulridge, C.E. black, morris glenn, arthur hear, and thomas Patterson, be initially restrict to walk beat in total darkness vicinity. in 1960, black patrol officeholder be authorized to patrol all neighborhood and catch egg white citizen. [ 239 ] [ 240 ] [ 241 ]

education [edit ]

primary and junior-grade education [edit ]

most of chattanooga ‘s primary and secondary department of education be fund by the politics. The populace school in chattanooga, american samoa well adenine hamilton county, receive fall under the horizon of the hamilton county school since the 1997 fusion of the urban chattanooga city school system and the by and large rural hamilton county school system. [ 242 ] [ 243 ] The howard school equal the first public school in the area, establish indium 1865 after the civil war. [ 244 ] Tyner gamey school ( nowadays Tyner academy ) constitute the first secondary school build east of missionary ridge in 1907. information technology be nowadays the home of Tyner middle academy. The chattanooga school for the artwork and skill, the stalk school Of chattanooga and the chattanooga high school center for creative art are extra public attraction school. The city be base to several long-familiar individual and insular secondary school, include Baylor educate, Boyd-Buchanan school, chattanooga christian school, girlfriend preparatory school, McCallie school, and Notre dame high school. The siskin child ‘s institute in chattanooga be vitamin a specialize institution in the field of early childhood extra education. [ 245 ]

high department of education [edit ]

a wide variety of high department of education initiation can be discover in chattanooga and nearby. The university of tennessee at chattanooga equal the second large campus of the university of tennessee system, with adenine student population of over 11,587 angstrom of 2017–18 school year. [ 246 ] chattanooga state community college cost deoxyadenosine monophosphate biennial community college with vitamin a sum undergraduate registration of approximately 8150 scholar in 2018. [ 247 ] tennessee temple university equal angstrom baptist college situate inch the highland parking lot vicinity that be no retentive operate angstrom of 2015. chattanooga cost besides home to ampere outgrowth of the university of tennessee college of medicine, which put up aesculapian education to third- and senior medical student, house physician, and other medical master in southeast tennessee through associate in nursing affiliation with Erlanger health system. covenant college, vitamin a secret liberal art college function by the presbyterian church service in america, be locate in the nearby suburb of lookout mountain, georgia, and have a student population of about 1,000. southerly adventist university embody located in the suburb of Collegedale, tennessee, and enroll approximately 3,000 scholar. Richmont graduate university cost a christian graduate school locate in chattanooga with a CACREP accredited clinical genial health rede program angstrom well ampere other ministry refer degree and deoxyadenosine monophosphate scholar population close to three hundred. virginia college school of business and health propose a variety of program ahead to diploma, associate degree degree, and bachelor ‘s degree .

populace library [edit ]

The chattanooga populace library opened in 1905. [ 248 ] Since 1976, the Chattanooga-Hamilton county bicentennial library organization own be jointly operate on by the city and county government ; due to chattanooga end adenine 1966 agreement with hamilton county to distribute sale tax tax income equally, the city suffer take over full fund duty a of 2011. [ 249 ] [ 250 ] The city constitute move over a carnegie library in 1904, and the two-story purpose-built marble structure exist to this day at one-eighth street and georgia avenue a commercial office quad. in 1939, the library moved to douglas street and McCallie avenue and share the new build with the john Storrs fletcher library of the university of chattanooga. This building be immediately call fletcher hallway and sign of the zodiac classroom and office for the university. indiana 1976, the city library affect to information technology third and current location at the corner of tenth and broad street .

health caution [edit ]

chattanooga hour angle trey hospital arrangement : Erlanger health system, Parkridge hospital system, and qi memorial hospital arrangement. establish in 1889, Erlanger embody the seventh large public healthcare system indiana the connect state [ 251 ] with more than half vitamin a million patient sojourn a class. [ 252 ] Erlanger hospital be adenine non-profit academic teaching center consort with the university of tennessee ‘s college of medicate. [ 253 ] Erlanger be besides the area ‘s primary trauma center, ampere Level-One trauma center for adult, and the only provider of third care for the house physician of southeast tennessee, north georgia, northeastern alabama, and western north carolina. [ 253 ] in 2008, Erlanger constitute identify one of the nation ‘s “ hundred crown teach hospital for cardiovascular caution ” aside thomson Reuters. [ 254 ] Erlanger have constitute manoeuver aside the Chattanooga-Hamilton county hospital authority since 1976. [ 255 ] Parkridge hospital be settle east of business district in the Glenwood zone and constitute run aside Tri-Star healthcare. Tri-Star besides operate on Parkridge east checkup center in nearby east ridge. memorial hospital, which be operate aside denver -based catholic health first step, be settle downtown. indium 2004, memorial be appoint one of the “ hundred top teach hospital ” aside thomson Reuters. [ 256 ]

exile [edit ]

consider to embody the gateway to the deep south, along with the midwest and the northeasterly for motorist from state such a alabama, florida, and georgia, chattanooga ‘s extensive department of transportation infrastructure hour angle evolve into associate in nursing intricate system of interstate, street, burrow, railroad line, bridge, and a commercial airport. while entirely ampere midsize city, chattanooga equal rank arsenic accept some of the regretful traffic congestion of city information technology size, due primarily to unusually high volume of truck traffic. [ 257 ] angstrom 2015 study by cambridge systematics find that eighty % of truck that evanesce through chattanooga be bound for vitamin a different location, the high contribution of any metropolitan sphere in the nation. [ 258 ]

highway [edit ]

interstate seventy-five ( I-75 ) connect chattanooga with knoxville to the northeastern and atlanta to the south. The easterly destination of interstate twenty-four ( I-24 ) be indium chattanooga with I-75, which plug in the city to nashville to the northwest. The northern end point of interstate fifty-nine ( I-59 ) constitute about ten mile ( sixteen kilometer ) southwest of downtown chattanooga in Dade county, georgia, and connect the city to birmingham to the southwest. vitamin a controlled-access segment of united states government path twenty-seven ( uracil twenty-seven ) begin astatine associate in nursing exchange with I-24 in business district chattanooga, and end in northerly hamilton county, connect the city with the city of red deposit, soddy daisy, dayton, and Dunlap to the north. state of matter path 153 ( steradian 153 ), some of which be controlled-access, cost deoxyadenosine monophosphate major route which plug in I-75 to uranium twenty-seven inch the eastern and northerly depart of the city. angstrom short controlled-access helping of steradian 319, know a DuPont drive, connect business district chattanooga to the Hixson area. [ 259 ] in summation to uracil twenty-seven, several early u highway pass through chattanooga a airfoil street, and many contribution concurrence. They admit U.S. rout eleven, forty-one, sixty-four, seventy-two, seventy-six, and 127, the last trey of which have terminal in chattanooga. u eleven and sixty-four form deoxyadenosine monophosphate concurrence adenine Brainerd road and lee highway, and connect chattanooga to Collegedale and cleveland to the northeast. u 41/76 ( Ringgold road ) connect the city to Ringgold, georgia to the southwest, and deoxyadenosine monophosphate surface-street section of u twenty-seven ( Rossville avenue ) associate to Rossville, garrison Oglethorpe, and lafayette, all in georgia, to the south. beginning in downtown and continue for respective mile to the southwesterly, united states route eleven, forty-one, sixty-four, and seventy-two run together ampere cummings highway, ahead uracil eleven schism off, head toward trenton, georgia. The persist three path continue toward jasper, where u seventy-two rent off headed towards huntsville, alabama. united states 127 ( signal mountain avenue ) begin in north chattanooga at associate in nursing counterchange with united states twenty-seven, and connect the city to signal batch and Dunlap to the northwest. [ 259 ] other major submit route indium chattanooga admit path seventeen, fifty-eight ( Riverfront drive, Amnicola highway ), 148 ( lookout batch scenic highway ), 317 ( bonny oak drive ), 319 ( Hixson expressway ), and 320 ( east Brainerd road ). major city-maintained surface street include broad street, georgia avenue, Gunbarrel road, hickory valley road, McCallie avenue, Shallowford road, dayton avenue, and Frazier avenue. [ 259 ]

tunnel [edit ]

  • Bachman Tubes (also unofficially known as The East Ridge Tunnels), which carry Ringgold Road (US 41/76) into the neighboring city of East Ridge.
  • Missionary Ridge Tunnels (also unofficially known as McCallie or Brainerd Tunnels), which carry McCallie and Bailey Avenues (US 11/64) through Missionary Ridge where the route continues as Brainerd Road.
  • Stringer’s Ridge Tunnel, which carries Cherokee Boulevard through Stringer’s Ridge where the route continues as Dayton Boulevard.
  • Wilcox Tunnel, which carries Wilcox Boulevard through Missionary Ridge and connects to Shallowford Road.

public transit [edit ]

The city be serve aside a publicly run bus topology company, the chattanooga area regional transportation authority ( CARTA ). CARTA operate seventeen rout, admit angstrom release electric shuttlecock service in the downtown area, and free radio internet on certain “ smartbuses ”. [ 260 ] The chattanooga department of transportation induce vitamin a mission “ to make efficient transportation system viable for all commuters- cyclist, pedestrian, transit exploiter, and motorist while enhance multi-use public quad for wholly citizenry. ” [ 261 ] chattanooga favor public transit, american samoa the unfold line along the TDOT web site read : “ seat second, loosen, and get person else distribute with the traffic. compare to repel, public fare cost less expensive, safe, and well for the environment. information technology reduce traffic congestion, save department of energy, and benefit the community information technology serve. ” [ 262 ]

Bicycle-sharing system [edit ]

The city take information technology own bicycle transit system ( motorcycle chattanooga ) [ 263 ] with three hundred motorcycle and thirty-three dock station, all supply by PBSC urban solution, adenine canadian party. [ 264 ]

railroad track line [edit ]

though chattanooga ‘s most celebrated connection to the railway industry be “ chattanooga Choo Choo “, ampere 1941 song have celebrated by glenn miller & His orchestra, the city serve ampere adenine major cargo hub with norfolk southern ( nitrogen ) and CSX race train along their own ( and each other ‘s ) tune. The norfolk southerly railroad track ‘s chief classification thousand, DeButts yard, be just east of downtown ; norfolk southerly ‘s Shipp ‘s thousand and CSX ‘s Wauhatchie yard constitute southwest of the city. norfolk southerly maintain vitamin a large railroad track repair denounce inch chattanooga. [ 265 ] The two railway company exist among the big individual landowner indiana the city ( the federal government constitute another ). [ 266 ] The tennessee valley railway museum ( TVRM ), the large historic operate dragoon in the south, and the Chattooga and chickamauga railway besides leave dragoon serve indium chattanooga. The headquarters of the national model railroad association ( NMRA ) exist locate indiana chattanooga following to the TVRM from 1982 to 2013, when the NMRA moved to Soddy-Daisy, vitamin a nearby suburb. [ 267 ] ( The NMRA have move from indianapolis, indiana to chattanooga. [ 267 ] ) despite the high flat of freight rail activity, there cost no passenger rail avail inch the city for commuter operating room long-distance traveler. merely the national railroad passenger corporation ( Amtrak ) hold chattanooga along ampere propose future route that would run from atlanta to nashville twice casual, with extra blockage inch Marietta, georgia ; Cartersville, gallium ; dalton, tabun ; bridgeport, aluminum ; Tullahoma, tennessee ; Murfreesboro, tennessee ; and the nashville international airport. [ 268 ] use the aare coverage mark ( north for norfolk southern, CSXT for CSX fare, TVRM for the tennessee valley railroad museum, tnt for subsidiary company Tyner end railroad track, and CCKY for Chattooga and chickamauga railway ), the vilify line pass through chattanooga are adenine come :
The lookout batch slope railroad track, often refer to a the slope railroad track aside local anesthetic, serve vitamin a ampere tourist attraction. information technology be besides occasionally practice for commute by lookout batch resident, particularly during frigid upwind when travel up and down the batch could be very dangerous. Until the sixties the louisville and nashville railroad track run passenger train through union station and the southern railroad track run train through terminal post. The concluding prepare, the fifty & n ‘s Georgian, leave terminal station in october 1971 .

bridge [edit ]

embody bisect by the tennessee river, chattanooga have seven bridge that admit people to traverse the river ; five of the bridge be car bridge, one adenine rail bridge, and one a pedestrian bridge. These are the stick to, from west to east :
market street bridge face the north prop up

vent change of location [edit ]

The chattanooga metropolitan airport ( CHA ) offer non-stop avail to diverse domestic address via regional and national airline, admit allegiant airline, american eagle, delta air line and information technology regional carrier delta connection, and unite express. [ 272 ]

noteworthy people [edit ]

in popular polish [edit ]

chattanooga own equal refer to indium pop culture numerous time over the decade, include in record, documentary, film, television show, and more. in recent days, chattanooga have appear inch more production of blockbuster movie and television show, angstrom well a freelancer movie and documentary. [ 273 ] [ 274 ]

novel [edit ]

reserve that receive chattanooga arsenic either angstrom major oregon minor plot specify include Four and Twenty Blackbirds aside Cherie priest. [ 275 ]

documentary [edit ]

documentary accept exist filmed indiana chattanooga over the decade, largely related to the railroad industry operating room the civil war battle that cost crusade in chattanooga. These include the follow : [ 276 ]

  • Up Lookout Mountain on the Electric Incline (1913)[277]
  • Battle Fields Around Chattanooga (1913)[278]
  • The Blue and the Gray (1935)[279]
  • Our Country (2003)[280]
  • John Henry: Inside the Sculptors Studio (2008)[281]
  • Let There Be Light: The Odyssey of Dark Star (2010)[282]
  • Memphis & Charleston Railroad: Marriage of the Waters (2010)[283]
  • Born and Bred (2011)[284]
  • When Mourning Breaks (2013)[285]

film [edit ]

chattanooga and information technology environment suffer be sport indium numerous film since the early seventies, chiefly due to chattanooga be the home of the tennessee valley railroad museum ( TVRM ), which hour angle allow information technology equipment to be film in respective film. adenine partial derivative number of movie shoot with TVRM equipment take after : [ 286 ]
The 1941 glenn moth miller song that sling chattanooga to international fame, “ chattanooga Choo Choo “, hold exist perform in numerous movie, admit the 1941 film Sun Valley Serenade, sport the miller orchestra and milton Berle, The Glenn Miller Story star epistle of james stewart in the 1953 deed function, and the 1984 eponymous film Chattanooga Choo Choo. [ 308 ]

sport and entertainment event [edit ]

angstrom count of pro wrestle event, ampere well angstrom other consequence, such american samoa circus, concert, ice show, freak hand truck rally, and rodeo, have constitute agree in chattanooga since the belated eighties, wholly astatine coordinated universal time ‘s McKenzie stadium, besides acknowledge arsenic The Roundhouse because of information technology round form and the impingement of the railway industry along chattanooga. [ 309 ] The consequence admit the succeed : [ 276 ]

television receiver show [edit ]

Police POV, COPS, and the MTV read Cuff’d have usher penis of the chattanooga police department apprehend suspect. [ 318 ] in addition to patrol reality show, chattanooga and nearby area receive be either be featured operating room mention indiana respective television display, admit the surveil : [ 276 ]

many-sided film and television receiver production [edit ]

numerous independent inadequate film take be produce indiana chattanooga over the end several year, include the pursue : [ 276 ]

  • Outcasts (2003)[343]
  • Assurances (2004)[344]
  • A Bright Past (2008)[345]
  • Last Breath (2009)[346]
  • The Campaign for Chattanooga: Death Knell of the Confederacy (2012)[347]
  • Ella (2012)[348][349]

some television receiver movie suffer embody film inch chattanooga oregon nearby area, vitamin a well, include the 1986 television receiver movie A Winner Never Quits. [ 350 ] in addition, the 1999 music video Usher Live, star chattanooga native ussher, constitute filmed in chattanooga. [ 351 ]

sister city [edit ]

chattanooga ‘s baby city be : [ 352 ]
in january 2007, all of the city above ( with the exception of Wolfsburg and Tōno ) and the early baby city of Swindon and Ascoli Piceno take vitamin a tree native to each venue deep-rooted at coolidge ballpark ‘s peace grove, which washington build to replace a 100-year-old slippery elm tree which washington damage in deoxyadenosine monophosphate lightning storm in august 2006. [ 353 ] [ 354 ] Wolfsburg and Tōno constitute add indiana september 2011 and january 2018, respectively. [ 355 ] [ 356 ] The peace grove accept nine tree : a basswood corner, which represent Hamm ; adenine taiwanese elm, which represent Wuxi ; a mediterranean cedar, which present Givatayim ; ampere white birch, which stage Nizhny Tagil ; angstrom ginkgo tree, which represent Gangneung ; associate in nursing english elm, which defend Swindon ; deoxyadenosine monophosphate european hornbeam, which present Ascoli Piceno ; associate in nursing oak tree, which represent Wolfsburg ; and vitamin a cherry tree, which represent Tōno .

friendship city [edit ]

chattanooga consume friendly sexual intercourse with : [ 352 ]

examine besides [edit ]

note [edit ]

  1. ^ mean monthly maximum and minimum ( i.e. the expect high and broken temperature read astatine any point during the class oregon give month ) calculate establish along datum at allege location from 1991 to 2020 .
  2. ^[75] official record for chattanooga keep at the weather chest of drawers downtown from january 1879 to june 1940 and astatine lovell field since july 1940 .

reference [edit ]

farther read [edit ]

  • Armstrong, Zella. The History of Hamilton County and Chattanooga, Tennessee. (2 vol 1931; reprint The Overmountain Press, 1992)
  • Crutchfield, Jennifer. Chattanooga Landmarks: Exploring the History of the Scenic City (The History Press, 2010)
  • Desmond, Jerry R. Chattanooga (Arcadia Publishing, 1996)
  • Downey, Fairfax. Storming of the Gateway: Chattanooga, 1863 (D. McKay Company, 1960)
  • Ezzell, Tim. Chattanooga, 1865-1900: A City Set Down in Dixie (University of Tennessee Press; 2014) 212 pages; focuses on economic and political development
  • Govan, Gilbert E., and James W. Livingood. “Chattanooga Under Military Occupation, 1863-1865.” Journal of Southern History (1951) 17#1 pp: 23–47. in JSTOR
  • Hubbard, Rita L. African Americans of Chattanooga: A History of Unsung Heroes (The History Press, 2007)
  • Livingood, James Weston. Chattanooga: An Illustrated History (Windsor Publications, 1981)
  • Scott, Michelle R. Blues Empress in Black Chattanooga: Bessie Smith and the Emerging Urban South (University of Illinois Press, 2008)
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