“ human body of the human torso ” redirects here. For the casebook, see Gray ‘s Anatomy
The human body is the social organization of a human being. It is composed of many different types of cells that together create tissues and subsequently electric organ systems. They ensure homeostasis and the viability of the human torso.
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It comprises a head, hair, neck, trunk ( which includes the thorax and abdomen ), arms and hands, legs and feet. The discipline of the homo body involves anatomy, physiology, histology and embryology. The consistency varies anatomically in known ways. Physiology focuses on the systems and organs of the human body and their functions. many systems and mechanism interact in order to maintain homeostasis, with dependable levels of substances such as boodle and oxygen in the blood. The body is studied by health professionals, physiologists, anatomists, and by artists to assist them in their work .
typography [edit ]
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The human body is composed of elements including hydrogen, oxygen, carbon paper, calcium and morning star. [ 1 ] These elements reside in trillions of cells and non-cellular components of the body. The adult male torso is about 60 % water for a sum water content of some 42 litres ( 9.2 imp gal ; 11 US gal ). This is made up of about 19 litres ( 4.2 imp gallon ; 5.0 US gal ) of extracellular fluid including about 3.2 litres ( 0.70 elf gal ; 0.85 US gallon ) of rake plasma and about 8.4 litres ( 1.8 elf gal ; 2.2 US gallon ) of interstitial fluid, and about 23 litres ( 5.1 elf gal ; 6.1 US gal ) of fluent inside cells. [ 2 ] The content, acidity and composition of the water inside and outside cells is cautiously maintained. The chief electrolytes in body body of water outside cells are sodium and chloride, whereas within cells it is potassium and other phosphates .
Cells [edit ]
The body contains trillions of cells, the fundamental unit of measurement of life. [ 4 ] At maturity, there are approximately 30 [ 5 ] –37 [ 6 ] trillion cells in the torso, an estimate arrived at by totaling the cell numbers of all the organs of the body and cell types. The body is besides host to about the same act of non-human cells [ 5 ] a well as multicellular organisms which reside in the gastrointestinal tract and on the peel. [ 7 ] not all parts of the body are made from cells. Cells baby-sit in an extracellular matrix that consists of proteins such as collagen, surrounded by extracellular fluids. Of the 70 kilogram ( 150 pound ) slant of an average human body, about 25 kilogram ( 55 pound ) is non-human cells or non-cellular material such as bone and conjunction tissue .
Genome [edit ]
Cells in the body serve because of DNA. deoxyribonucleic acid sits within the nucleus of a cellular telephone. here, parts of DNA are copied and sent to the body of the cell via RNA. The RNA is then used to create proteins which form the basis for cells, their action, and their products. Proteins dictate cell function and gene expression, a cell is able to self-regulate by the amount of proteins produced. [ 9 ] however, not all cells have DNA ; some cells such as mature red rake cells lose their core as they mature .
Tissues [edit ]
The body consists of many unlike types of weave, defined as cells that act with a specialized function. [ 10 ] The cogitation of tissues is called histology and frequently occurs with a microscope. The body consists of four main types of tissues. These are lining cells ( epithelium ), conjunction weave, heart weave and muscle weave. Cells that lie on surfaces exposed to the outside populace or gastrointestinal tract ( epithelium ) or inner cavities ( endothelium ) fall in numerous shapes and forms – from unmarried layers of flat cells, to cells with little beating hair-like cilium in the lungs, to column-like cells that cable the stomach. endothelial cells are cells that telephone line internal cavities including lineage vessels and glands. Lining cells regulate what can and ca n’t pass through them, protect inner structures, and function as centripetal surfaces .
Organs [edit ]
Organs, structured collections of cells with a particular officiate, [ 12 ] by and large sit within the body, with the exception of skin. Examples include the center, lungs and liver. many organs reside within cavities within the body. These cavities include the abdomen ( which contains the abdomen, for example ) and pleura, which contains the lungs .
affection [edit ]
The heart is an organ located in the pectoral cavity between the lungs and slenderly to the leave. It is surrounded by the pericardium which holds it in position in the mediastinum and serves to protect it from dull trauma, infection and help oneself lubricate the motion of the heart via pericardial fluid. [ 13 ] The center works by pumping blood around the torso allowing oxygen, nutrients, waste, hormones and white blood cells to be transported .
Diagram of the human heart The heart is composed of two atrium and two ventricles. The primary purpose of the atrium is to allow uninterrupted venous rake run to the heart during ventricular systole. This allows adequate lineage to get into the ventricles during atrial systole. A miss of the atrium would cause a decrease in cardiac output signal of 75 %. [ 14 ] The determination of the ventricles is to pump blood to the lungs through the right ventricle and to the lie of the body through the left ventricle. [ 15 ] The heart has an electric conduction system to control the contractions and easiness of the brawn. It starts in the sinoatrial node traveling through the atria causing them to pump blood into the ventricles. It then travels to the atrioventricular node which makes the signal slow down slenderly allowing the ventricles to fill with lineage before pumping it out and starting the bicycle over again. [ 16 ] coronary thrombosis artery disease is the leading cause of death cosmopolitan, making up 16 % of all deaths. [ 17 ] It is caused by the buildup of plaque in the coronary thrombosis arteries supplying the heart, finally the arteries may become so narrow that not adequate rake is able to reach the myocardium, [ 18 ] a condition known as myocardial infarct or affection attack, this can cause heart failure or cardiac halt and finally death. [ 19 ] risk factors for coronary thrombosis artery disease include fleshiness, smoke, high cholesterol, senior high school blood pressure, miss of drill and diabetes. [ 20 ] Cancer can affect the heart, though it is extremely rare and has normally metastasized from another share of the torso such as the lungs or breasts. This is because the heart cells promptly stop separate and all emergence occurs through size addition quite than cell division. [ 21 ]
gallbladder [edit ]
The gallbladder is a hole pear shaped harmonium located buttocks to the subscript center share of the right lobe of the liver. It is variable in supreme headquarters allied powers europe and size. It stores bile before it is released into the small intestine via the common bile duct to help with digestion of fats. It receives bile from the liver via the cystic duct which connects to the common liverwort duct to form the park bile duct. [ 22 ] The gallbladder gets its blood supply from the cystic artery which in most people emerges from the correct hepatic artery. [ 22 ] Gallstones is a common disease in which one or more stones form in the gallbladder or bilious nerve pathway. Most people are asymptomatic but if a stone blocks the biliary tract it causes a gallbladder attack, symptoms may include sudden pain in the upper right abdomen and or center field of the abdomen. nausea and vomit may besides occur. distinctive treatment is removal of the gallbladder through a procedure called a cholecystectomy. [ 23 ] [ 24 ] Having gallstones is a risk factor for gallbladder cancer which although quite rare is quickly black if not diagnosed early. [ 25 ]
Systems [edit ]
circulatory system [edit ]
The circulative arrangement consists of the heart and blood vessels ( arteries, veins and capillaries ). The heart propels the circulation of the blood, which serves as a “ department of transportation system ” to transfer oxygen, fuel, nutrients, waste products, immune cells and signalling molecules ( i.e. hormones ) from one part of the body to another. Paths of blood circulation within the human body can be divided into two circuits : the pneumonic racing circuit, which pumps blood to the lungs to receive oxygen and leave carbon dioxide, and the systemic circuit, which carries rake from the center off to the stay of the torso. The blood consists of fluid that carries cells in the circulation, including some that move from tissue to blood vessels and back, angstrom well as the spleen and bone marrow. [ 26 ] [ 27 ] [ 28 ] [ 29 ]
digestive system [edit ]
digestive system The digestive system consists of the mouth including the tongue and tooth, esophagus, stomach, ( gastrointestinal tract, little and large intestines, and rectum ), ampere well as the liver, pancreas, gallbladder, and salivary glands. It converts food into humble, nutritional, non-toxic molecules for distribution and absorption into the body. These molecules take the form of proteins ( which are broken down into amino acids ), fats, vitamins and minerals ( the concluding of which are chiefly attic rather than molecular ). After being swallowed, food moves through the gastrointestinal tract by means of peristalsis : the taxonomic expansion and contraction of muscles to push food from one sphere to the future. [ 30 ] [ 31 ] digestion begins in the mouth, which chews food into smaller pieces for easier digestion. then it is swallowed, and moves through the esophagus to the stomach. In the stomach, food is assorted with gastric acids to allow the extraction of nutrients. What is left is called chyme ; this then moves into the small intestine, which absorbs the nutrients and water system from the chyme. What remains passes on to the boastfully intestine, where it is dried to form feces ; these are then stored in the rectum until they are expelled through the anus. [ 31 ]
endocrine system [edit ]
The hormone arrangement consists of the principal endocrine gland glands : the pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, parathyroids, and gonads, but about all organs and tissues produce specific endocrine hormones a well. The endocrine hormones serve as signals from one soundbox system to another regarding an enormous array of conditions, and resulting in assortment of changes of function. [ 32 ]
Immune system [edit ]
The immune system consists of the white blood cells, the thymus gland, lymph nodes and lymph channels, which are besides part of the lymphatic system. The immune system provides a mechanism for the torso to distinguish its own cells and tissues from outside cells and substances and to neutralize or destroy the latter by using specialized proteins such as antibodies, cytokines, and toll-like receptors, among many others. [ 33 ]
integumentary system [edit ]
The integumentary system consists of the cover of the torso ( the skin ), including hair and nails deoxyadenosine monophosphate good as other functionally significant structures such as the effort glands and greasy glands. The peel provides containment, structure, and auspices for early organs, and serves as a major sensory interface with the outside universe. [ 34 ] [ 35 ]
lymphatic system [edit ]
The lymphatic system extracts, transports and metabolizes lymph, the fluent found in between cells. The lymphatic system is like to the circulative system in terms of both its structure and its most basic function, to carry a body fluid. [ 36 ]
musculoskeletal system [edit ]
The musculoskeletal system consists of the human skeleton ( which includes bones, ligaments, tendons, joints and cartilage ) and attached muscles. It gives the body basic social organization and the ability for campaign. In addition to their structural role, the larger bones in the body contain bone marrow, the web site of production of blood cells. besides, all bones are major storage sites for calcium and phosphate. This arrangement can be split up into the muscular system and the bony system. [ 37 ]
aflutter system [edit ]
nervous system The skittish system consists of the torso ‘s neurons and glial cells, which in concert form the nerves, ganglia and grey count which in turn form the brain and related structures. The brain is the electric organ of intend, emotion, memory, and sensational action ; it serves many aspects of communication and controls diverse systems and functions. The special senses consist of vision, earshot, preference, and smell. The eyes, ears, tongue, and nose gather information about the body ‘s environment. [ 38 ] From a structural position, the skittish system is typically subdivided into two component parts : the cardinal anxious system ( CNS ), composed of the brain and the spinal cord ; and the peripheral anxious system ( PNS ), composed of the nerves and ganglia outside the brain and spinal cord. The CNS is by and large creditworthy for organizing motion, processing centripetal information, think, memory, cognition and other such functions. [ 39 ] It remains a matter of some debate whether the CNS directly gives rise to awareness. [ 40 ] The peripheral nervous system ( PNS ) is by and large creditworthy for gathering data with sensational neurons and directing body movements with centrifugal neurons. [ 39 ]
From a functional perspective, the nervous system is again typically divided into two component parts : the bodily aflutter system ( SNS ) and the autonomic aflutter organization ( ANS ). The SNS is involved in voluntary functions like talk and sensational processes. The ANS is involved in involuntary processes, such as digestion and regulating blood pressure. [ 41 ] The aflutter system is topic to many different diseases. In epilepsy, abnormal electrical bodily process in the mind can cause seizures. In multiple sclerosis, the immune system attacks the steel linings, damaging the nerves ‘ ability to transmit signals. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis ( ALS ), besides known as Lou Gehrig ‘s disease, is a motor nerve cell disease which gradually reduces movement in patients. There are besides many other diseases of the nervous system. [ 39 ]
generative system [edit ]
The primary aim of the generative organization is to produce fresh humans in the form of children and ensure their sexual development so that they can produce new humans besides. It is composed of the gonads ( testes and ovaries ) which produce eggs and sperm cells ( gametes ) and produce hormones necessary for proper intimate growth. The remainder of the glands and ducts of the generative system are creditworthy for the exile and sustain of the gametes and to nurture the offspring. [ 42 ] The generative system is first gear stimulated by the hypothalamus during puberty which causes the ovaries and testes to produce testosterone ( male ) and estrogen and progesterone ( female ). Male puberty broadly occurs between the ages of 13-15 and is characterized by beginning of sperm production and the development of secondary coil sex characteristics such as increase stature and weight, broadened shoulders, pubic and facial haircloth, voice deepening and brawn exploitation. Female puberty broadly occurs between the ages of 9-13 and is characterized by ovulation and menstruation. The growth of secondary sex characteristics such as emergence of pubic and underhand haircloth, breast, uterine and vaginal emergence, widening hips and increased altitude and weight besides occur during the female puberty process. [ 43 ]
The external male generative system is made up of the penis and the scrotum which is a bag that protects the testis. The penis consists of the glans which is the head of the penis and contains the urethra and urinary meatus the point where urine exits the penis, the rest of the penis is called the shaft or corpus cavernosum and contains most of the urethra. The glans is covered by a pen up of clamber called the prepuce though this can be removed through circumcision. [ 43 ]
external female generative system with mons pubis highlighted internally the male generative system starts in the testes where hundreds of seminiferous tubules produce sperm which is then stored and matured into sperm in the epididymis. They are then brought through the department of veterans affairs deferens which leads away from the testes to the germinal vesicles where the sperm cells are mix with a fructose -rich fluid from the germinal vesicles allowing the sperm to stay alive and remain healthy. It is then brought by the ejaculatory duct through the prostate gland and bulbourethral gland, and desegregate with fluids from said glands. The fluid from the prostate helps to neutralize the acidity of the vagina and keep the sperm alive. This mixture of sperm and accessory gland fluids is called semen and is released through the urethra during ejaculation. Almost the integral inner male generative system works in pairs with two testes, two epididymis, two virginia deferens, two seminal vesicles, two ejaculatory ducts, two bulbourethral glands, but alone one prostate and urethra. [ 43 ] [ 44 ] The external female generative arrangement besides called the vulva consists of the mons pubis a fatty multitude that covers the pubis, the labium majora ( outer lips of the vagina ), the labium minora ( inner lips of the vagina ), the vaginal opening which opens into vagina and is where the penis is inserted during sexual intercourse and children are born, the urethral open which is the opening for the urethra that carries urine from the bladder and the clitoris which contains the most sensitive nerve endings and in humans has no practice other than intimate pleasure. Located between the anus and vagina is the perineum. [ 45 ] [ 43 ]
internally the female generative arrangement contains two ovaries, the uterus, two fallopian tubes and the neck. At birth a female has about 700,000 oocytes ( the immature interpretation of the egg cellular telephone ) in both ovaries combined, though this degenerates to about 400,000 by the clock puberty is reached. This is a life issue as after give birth no more oocytes are produced, compared to males where sperm cells are produced during their entire life. During puberty the menstrual motorbike begins for the beginning time, in reaction to low estrogen and progesterone levels the hypothalamus releases gonadotropin releasing hormone ( GnRH ). This causes the anterior pituitary gland to release follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH ) and luteinizing hormone ( LH ). FSH stimulates ovarian follicles to grow and one dominant follicle will finally take over. As it continues to grow it releases more and more estradiol which stimulates LH secretion and suppresses FSH secretion preventing far follicular growth. When LH levels are highest the follicle ruptures releasing the ovum in a action called ovulation where it is then moved to one of the fallopian metro. After ovulation the assign of the follicle that remains in the ovary is transformed into principal luteum which continues to produce estrogen and high levels of progesterone. The progesterone causes the endometrium to grow chummy preparing it for implantation of a inseminate egg. If fertilization occurs the corpus luteum continues to secrete hormones until the placenta develops enough to secrete the necessary hormones for maintaining pregnancy. finally the corpus luteum will turn into principal albicans which is basically scratch tissue. If fertilization fails the corpus luteum will degrade into corpus albicans and stop secreting enough progesterone and estrogen causing the endometrial line to break resulting in menstruation. [ 43 ] [ 46 ] many diseases affect the generative system such as polycystic ovary syndrome ( PCOS ) which is characterized by raise androgen levels, menstrual irregularities and/or little cysts on one or both of the ovaries. It is a common disease affecting at least 7 % of adult women. Symptoms include excess body hair’s-breadth, sterility, weight derive, male convention baldness and irregular menstruation. [ 47 ] [ 48 ] Another generative disease is testicular tortuosity, it occurs when the spermous cord which holds up the testis wraps around itself cutting off blood run to the testis. testicular torsion is a medical hand brake and can result in testicular death or sterility if not treated immediately by physically unwrapping the spermous cord. If the testis has suffered dangerous price, it may need to be surgically in a lateral pass orchidectomy. The primary symptom of testicular torsion is hard testicular trouble at rest, nausea and vomit may besides occur. testicular tortuosity can occur at any old age though it is most common in 12-18 class olds. [ 49 ] [ 50 ] sexually transmitted infections such as syphilis, HIV, chlamydia, HPV and genital warts are spread through sexual sexual intercourse including oral, vaginal and anal sex. many of these infections can be deadly if left untreated though others are by and large harmless. [ 51 ] [ 52 ] cancer can affect many parts of the generative arrangement including the penis, testicles, prostate, ovaries, cervix, vagina, fallopian, uterus and vulva. [ 53 ]
respiratory system [edit ]
The respiratory system consists of the nose, nasopharynx, trachea, and lungs. It brings oxygen from the atmosphere and excretes carbon dioxide and water back into the air. First, atmosphere is pulled through the trachea into the lungs by the diaphragm pushing down, which creates a vacuum. Air is concisely stored inside little pouch known as tooth socket ( sing. : tooth socket ) before being expelled from the lungs when the diaphragm contracts again. Each tooth socket is surrounded by capillaries carrying deoxygenated blood, which absorbs oxygen out of the air and into the bloodstream. [ 54 ] [ 55 ] For the respiratory system to function by rights, there need to be as few impediments as possible to the drift of air out within the lungs. excitement of the lungs and excess mucus are common sources of breathing difficulties. [ 55 ] In asthma, the respiratory system is persistently inflamed, causing wheezing and/or shortness of breath. Pneumonia occurs through infection of the alveolus, and may be caused by tuberculosis. Emphysema, normally a leave of smoke, is caused by damage to connections between the tooth socket. [ 56 ]
urinary system [edit ]
Female urinary system The urinary system consists of the two kidneys, two ureters, bladder, and urethra. It removes pine away materials from the blood through urine, which carries a diverseness of waste molecules and excess ions and water out of the soundbox. first, the kidneys filter the blood through their respective nephrons, removing waste products like urea, creatinine and maintaining the proper balance of electrolytes and turning the neutralize products into urine by combining them with water from the blood. [ 57 ] The kidneys filter about 150 quarts ( 170 liters ) of blood casual, but most of it is returned to the blood stream with only 1-2 quarts ( 1-2 liters ) ending up as urine. [ 58 ] The urine is brought by the ureters from the kidneys down to the bladder. The smooth muscle lining the ureter walls endlessly stiffen and relax through a procedure called peristalsis to force urine away from the kidney and devour into the bladder. little amounts of urine are released into the bladder every 10–15 seconds. The bladder is a hollow balloon shaped organ located in the pelvis. It stores urine until the brain signals it to relax the urinary sphincter and release the urine into the urethra starting micturition. [ 59 ] A normal bladder can hold up to 16 ounces ( half a liter ) for 3–5 hours comfortably. numerous diseases affect the urinary system including kidney stones which are formed when materials in the urine centralize enough to form a solid batch, urinary tract infections which are infections of the urinary nerve pathway and can cause pain when urinate, frequent micturition and even death if left untreated. nephritic failure occurs when the kidneys fail to adequately filter waste from the rake and can lead to death if not treated with dialysis or kidney transplant. [ 60 ] Cancer can affect the bladder, kidneys, urethra and ureters with the latter two being army for the liberation of rwanda more rare. [ 61 ]
human body [edit ]
Human anatomy is the analyze of the shape and shape of the human body. The human body has four limbs ( two arms and two legs ), a forefront and a neck which plug in to the torso. The body ‘s shape is determined by a impregnable skeletal system made of bone and cartilage, surrounded by fatty ( adipose weave ), muscle, connective tissue, organs, and other structures. The spine at the back of the skeleton contains the compromising vertebral column which surrounds the spinal cord, which is a solicitation of nerve fibres connecting the brain to the rest of the body. Nerves connect the spinal cord and mind to the rest of the body. All major bones, muscles, and nerves in the body are named, with the exception of anatomic variations such as sesamoid bone bones and accessory muscles. Blood vessels carry blood throughout the body, which moves because of the exhaust of the heart. Venules and veins collect rake low in oxygen from tissues throughout the body. These collect in increasingly larger veins until they reach the torso ‘s two largest veins, the superior and inferior vein cava, which drain blood into the mighty side of the kernel. From here, the lineage is pumped into the lungs where it receives oxygen and drains back into the leave side of the heart. From here, it is pumped into the body ‘s largest artery, the aorta, and then increasingly smaller arteries and arterioles until it reaches weave. hera blood passes from small arteries into capillaries, then small veins and the process begins again. Blood carries oxygen, waste products, and hormones from one put in the torso to another. blood is filtered at the kidneys and liver. The body consists of a number of torso cavities, separated areas which sign of the zodiac different organ systems. The brain and central skittish arrangement reside in an sphere protected from the rest of the body by the blood mind barrier. The lungs sit in the pleural cavity. The intestines, liver, and spleen sit in the abdominal cavity. Height, weight, condition and other body proportions vary individually and with age and sex. Body form is influenced by the distribution of bones, muscleman and adipose tissue tissue. [ 62 ]
physiology [edit ]
Human physiology is the study of how the homo consistency functions. This includes the mechanical, physical, bioelectrical, and biochemical functions of humans in good health, from organs to the cells of which they are composed. The human body consists of many interacting systems of organs. These interact to maintain homeostasis, keeping the body in a static state of matter with safe levels of substances such as boodle and oxygen in the rake. [ 63 ] Each system contributes to homeostasis, of itself, other systems, and the entire consistency. Some compound systems are referred to by joint names. For exercise, the anxious system and the endocrine gland system operate in concert as the neuroendocrine system. The anxious system receives information from the body, and transmits this to the brain via steel impulses and neurotransmitters. At the lapp time, the hormone system releases hormones, such as to help regulate rake pressure and volume. together, these systems regulate the internal environment of the body, maintaining blood hang, carriage, energy supply, temperature, and acid balance ( ph ). [ 63 ]
Development [edit ]
Baby being carried Development of the human body is the process of growth to maturity. The procedure begins with fertilization, where an testis released from the ovary of a female is penetrated by sperm. The egg then lodges in the uterus, where an embryo and subsequently fetus develop until parentage. Growth and development occur after birth, and include both forcible and psychological development, influenced by genetic, hormonal, environmental and other factors. Development and growth continue throughout biography, through childhood, adolescence, and through adulthood to honest-to-god old age, and are referred to as the process of aging .
company and culture [edit ]
Professional study [edit ]
Health professionals learn about the homo body from illustrations, models, and demonstrations. Medical and dental students in addition gain virtual experience, for model by dissection of cadavers. Human anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry are basic aesculapian sciences, by and large taught to medical students in their first year at checkup school. [ 64 ] [ 65 ] [ 66 ]
depicting [edit ]
Anatomy has served the ocular arts since Ancient Greek times, when the fifth century BC sculptor Polykleitos wrote his Canon on the ideal proportions of the male nude. [ 67 ] In the Italian Renaissance, artists from Piero della Francesca ( c. 1415–1492 ) onwards, including Leonardo district attorney Vinci ( 1452–1519 ) and his collaborator Luca Pacioli ( c. 1447–1517 ), learn and wrote about the rules of art, including ocular perspective and the proportions of the human body. [ 68 ]
history of human body [edit ]
Epitome by Two face pages of text with woodcuts of naked male and female figures, in theby Andreas Vesalius, 1543 In Ancient Greece, the Hippocratic Corpus described the anatomy of the skeletal system and muscles. [ 69 ] The second century doctor Galen of Pergamum compiled classical cognition of human body into a text that was used throughout the Middle Ages. [ 70 ] In the Renaissance, Andreas Vesalius ( 1514–1564 ) pioneered the modern study of human anatomy by dissection, writing the influential ledger De humani corporis fabrica. [ 71 ] [ 72 ] Anatomy advanced further with the invention of the microscope and the study of the cellular structure of tissues and organs. [ 73 ] Modern anatomy uses techniques such as charismatic resonance visualize, computed imaging, fluoroscopy and sonography image to study the body in unprecedented detail. [ 74 ]
history of physiology [edit ]
The study of human physiology began with Hippocrates in Ancient Greece, around 420 BCE, and with Aristotle ( 384–322 BCE ) who applied critical think and emphasis on the relationship between social organization and function. Galen ( ca. 126–199 ) was the beginning to use experiments to probe the torso ‘s functions. [ 75 ] The term physiology was introduced by the french doctor Jean Fernel ( 1497–1558 ). [ 76 ] In the seventeenth century, William Harvey ( 1578–1657 ) described the circulatory arrangement, pioneering the combination of near observation with careful experiment. [ 77 ] In the nineteenth hundred, physiologic cognition began to accumulate at a rapid pace with the cell hypothesis of Matthias Schleiden and Theodor Schwann in 1838, that organisms are made up of cells. [ 76 ] Claude Bernard ( 1813–1878 ) created the concept of the milieu interieur ( inner environment ), which Walter Cannon ( 1871–1945 ) late said was regulated to a steady state in homeostasis. In the twentieth century, the physiologists Knut Schmidt-Nielsen and George Bartholomew extended their studies to comparative physiology and ecophysiology. [ 78 ] Most recently, evolutionary physiology has become a distinct subdiscipline. [ 79 ]
See besides [edit ]
References [edit ]
Books [edit ]
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