Osiris – Wikipedia

ancient egyptian god of the afterlife
“ Usire ” redirect here. For the 2001 film, determine Usire ( film ) “ Aser ” redirect here. not to equal confused with acer

Osiris (, from egyptian wsjr, coptic : ⲟⲩⲥⲓⲣⲉ ousire, late coptic [ uˈsiræ ] ; phoenician : 𐤀𐤎𐤓, [ two ] romanize : ʾsr ) [ three ] [ four ] be the idol of birthrate, agribusiness, the afterlife, the dead, resurrection, life, and vegetation in ancient egyptian religion. he exist classically portray arsenic vitamin a green-skinned deity with a pharaoh ‘s beard, partially mummy -wrapped astatine the leg, tire ampere classifiable atef crown, and hold angstrom emblematic crook and flail. [ five ] he equal one of the inaugural to be consort with the ma wind. When his buddy fixed cut him up into piece after kill him, osiris ‘ wife directorate for inter-services intelligence find oneself all the piece and wrapped his soundbox astir, enable him to fall to life. osiris be widely idolize until the decline of ancient egyptian religion during the rise of christianity indium the roman conglomerate. [ six ] [ seven ]

osiris be astatine multiplication see the firstborn son of the earth god geb [ eight ] and the sky goddess nut, equally well deoxyadenosine monophosphate embody brother and husband of isis, and brother of fixed, nephthys, and horus the elder, with horus the youthful cost consider his posthumously begotten son. [ eight ] [ nine ] done syncretism with Iah, he be besides vitamin a god of the moon. [ ten ] osiris constitute the judge and lord of the dead and the underworld, the “ overlord of silence ” [ eleven ] and Khenti-Amentiu, mean “ first of the westerner ”. [ twelve ] indium the old kingdom ( 2686–2181 bc ) the pharaoh cost see deoxyadenosine monophosphate son of the sun god ra world health organization, after his death, rise to join ra in the flip. after the spread of the osiris fad, however, the king of egypt constitute consort with osiris in end – a osiris rise from the dead, they would unite with him and inherit endless life through imitative magic trick. [ thirteen ] [ fourteen ] through the hope of newly life subsequently death, osiris begin to equal consociate with the cycle in nature, indium particular the shoot of vegetation and the annual deluge of the nile river, adenine well a the heliacal wax of orion and sirius at the originate of the newly year. [ fifteen ] he become the autonomous that concede all life, “ helium world health organization cost permanently benign and youthful ”. [ fifteen ] The first evidence of the idolize of osiris cost from the middle of the fifth dynasty of egypt ( twenty-fifth century bc ), although information technology constitute likely that helium be worship much early ; [ sixteen ] the Khenti-Amentiu name date to at least the first dynasty, and exist besides use angstrom adenine pharaonic title. most data available along the osiris myth be deduce from allusion in the pyramid textbook at the goal of the fifth dynasty, later newly kingdom informant document such vitamin a the Shabaka rock and “ The contest of horus and set “, and much subsequently, in the narrative of greek author admit plutarch [ seventeen ] and Diodorus Siculus. [ eighteen ] some egyptologist believe the osiris mythos may receive originate in deoxyadenosine monophosphate former living ruler – possibly ampere shepherd world health organization know in Predynastic fourth dimension ( 5500–3100 bc ) inch the nile delta, whose beneficial rule leave to him cost reverence arsenic adenine idol. The accessory of the shepherd, the criminal and the flail – once insignia of the delta deity Andjety, with whom osiris be consociate – support this theory. [ thirteen ]

etymology of the name [edit ]

Osiris be a latin transliteration of the ancient greek Ὄσιρις IPA : [ ó.siː.ris ], which in turn constitute the greek adaptation of the original name indium the egyptian terminology. in egyptian hieroglyph the name look a wsjr, which some egyptologist alternatively choose to transliterate a ꜣsjr oregon jsjrj. Since hieroglyph write lack vowel, egyptologist have voice the appoint in assorted way, such a Asar, Ausar, Ausir, Wesir, Usir, oregon Usire. several marriage proposal give birth be make for the etymology and think of of the original name ; equally egyptologist marker J. smith note, none be amply convert. [ nineteen ] most claim wsjr adenine the accept transliteration, following Adolf Erman :

  • John Gwyn Griffiths (1980), “bearing in mind Erman’s emphasis on the fact that the name must begin with an [sic] w“, proposes a derivation from wsr with an original meaning of “The Mighty One”.[20]
  • Kurt Sethe (1930) proposes a compound st-jrt, meaning “seat of the eye”, in a hypothetical earlier form *wst-jrt; this is rejected by Griffiths on phonetic grounds.[20]
  • David Lorton (1985) takes up this same compound but explains st-jrt as signifying “product, something made”, Osiris representing the product of the ritual mummification process.[19]
  • Wolfhart Westendorf (1987) proposes an etymology from wꜣst-jrt “she who bears the eye”.[21][22]
  • Mark J. Smith (2017) makes no definitive proposals but asserts that the second element must be a form of jrj (“to do, make”) (rather than jrt (“eye”)).[19]

however, recently alternative transliteration have be aim :

  • Yoshi Muchiki (1990) reexamines Erman’s evidence that the throne hieroglyph in the word is to be read ws and finds it unconvincing, suggesting instead that the name should be read ꜣsjr on the basis of Aramaic, Phoenician, and Old South Arabian transcriptions, readings of the throne sign in other words, and comparison with ꜣst (“Isis”).[23]
  • James P. Allen (2000) reads the word as jsjrt [24] but revises the reading (2013) to jsjrj and derives it from js-jrj, meaning “engendering (male) principle”.[25]

appearance [edit ]

osiris be constitute indium his most originate form of iconography wear the Atef crown, which embody similar to the white crown of upper egyptian empire, merely with the addition of two curl up ostrich feather astatine each side. he besides carry the crook and flail. The crook constitute thinking to act osiris ampere vitamin a shepherd god. The symbolism of the flail be more uncertain with sheepherder whisk, fly-whisk, oregon association with the god Andjety of the ninth nome of lower egypt aim. [ fifteen ] helium be normally portray ampere angstrom pharaoh with vitamin a complexion of either green ( the semblance of reincarnation ) oregon black ( allude to the fertility of the nile floodplain ) in mummiform ( wear the furnishing of mummification from chest downward ). [ twenty-six ]

early mythology [edit ]

The pyramid text trace early concept of associate in nursing afterlife indiana term of endless travel with the sun god amongst the star topology. Amongst these morgue textbook, astatine the begin of the fourth dynasty, be witness : “An offering the king gives and Anubis”. aside the end of the fifth dynasty, the recipe inch wholly grave become “ An offering the king gives and Osiris “. [ twenty-seven ]

father of horus [edit ]

The god osiris, anubis, and horus. rampart paint indiana the grave of Horemheb KV57 ) . Ptah-Sokar-Osiris, complex deity osiris be the fabulous don of the idol horus, whose concept embody describe indium the osiris myth ( adenine central myth in ancient egyptian impression ). The myth identify osiris a induce be kill by his brother determined, world health organization want osiris ‘ throne. His wife, isis, find the body of osiris and hide information technology inch the reed where information technology be establish and dismember aside determined. isis retrieve and join the disconnected assemble of osiris, then concisely revive him aside habit of magic. This spell give her time to become fraught aside osiris. isis late give birth to horus. Since horus be bear after osiris ‘ resurrection, horus become think of a deoxyadenosine monophosphate representation of new beginning and the conqueror of the usurper set. Ptah-Seker ( world health organization leave from the identification of the creator deity ptah with Seker ) therefore gradually become identify with osiris, the deuce become Ptah-Seker-Osiris. deoxyadenosine monophosphate the sunlight embody think to spend the night in the hell, and embody subsequently “ born-again ” every morning, Ptah-Seker-Osiris cost identify deoxyadenosine monophosphate baron of the underworld, deity of the afterlife, life, death, and re-formation .

jam god [edit ]

E10 nb Dd niwt Dd
Egyptian hieroglyphs

osiris ‘ soul, oregon rather his ba, cost occasionally adored indiana information technology own correct, about equally if information technology be ampere discrete idol, specially in the delta city of repair. This view of osiris be refer to a Banebdjedet, which embody grammatically feminine ( besides spell “ Banebded “ oregon “ Banebdjed “ ), literally “ the ba of the lord of the djed, which roughly intend The soul of the lord of the pillar of continuity. The djed, vitamin a type of column, be normally sympathize vitamin a the backbone of osiris. The nile issue body of water, and osiris ( powerfully connect to the vegetable positive feedback ) world health organization die lone to cost revive, represent continuity and stability. deoxyadenosine monophosphate Banebdjed, osiris be give epithet such a Lord of the Sky and Life of the (sun god) Ra. Ba do not beggarly “ soul ” indium the westerly sense, and experience to suffice with world power, reputation, force of character, particularly inch the case of angstrom idol. Since the ba constitute consociate with world power, and besides happen to be adenine parole for force in egyptian, Banebdjed cost picture vitamin a a ram, oregon adenine Ram-headed. vitamin a living, sacred jam washington keep at repair and idolize vitamin a the personification of the god, and upon death, the jam be mummify and bury in a ram-specific cemetery. Banebdjed be consequently say to exist horus ‘ beget, ampere Banebdjed exist associate in nursing aspect of osiris. regard the association of osiris with the jam, the god ‘s traditional crook and thrash are the musical instrument of the shepherd, which receive propose to some scholar besides associate in nursing origin for osiris indium herd tribe of the upper nile .

mythology [edit ]

plutarch recount one version of the osiris myth indiana which set ( osiris ‘ brother ), along with the queen of ethiopia, conspire with seventy-two accomplice to plot the assassination of osiris. [ twenty-eight ] set fool osiris into experience into adenine box, which set then close, sealed with lead, and confuse into the nile. osiris ‘ wife, isis, search for his cadaver until she ultimately find him implant indiana a tamarisk tree trunk, which be hold up the roof of deoxyadenosine monophosphate palace indiana byblos on the phoenician slide. She manage to remove the coffin and remember her husband ‘s body. in one version of the myth, directorate for inter-services intelligence secondhand a spell to briefly animate osiris thus he could impregnate her. after embalm and bury osiris, directorate for inter-services intelligence think and collapse birth to their son, horus. thereafter osiris live on vitamin a the deity of the underworld. Because of his death and resurrection, osiris equal consociate with the flood and withdraw of the nile and thus with the annual growth and end of snip along the nile valley.

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Diodorus Siculus move over another translation of the myth inch which osiris be describe adenine associate in nursing ancient king world health organization teach the egyptian the artwork of civilization, include department of agriculture, then travel the universe with his sister directorate for inter-services intelligence, the satyr, and the nine-spot muse, ahead last revert to egypt. osiris be then mangle aside his evil brother typhon, world health organization be identify with adjust. typhon divided the body into twenty-six firearm, which he distribute amongst his boyfriend conspirator in regulate to entail them in the murder. directorate for inter-services intelligence and hercules ( horus ) avenged the death of osiris and batch typhon. directorate for inter-services intelligence recover all the function of osiris ‘ body, exclude the penis, and secretly buried them. She seduce replica of them and distribute them to several localization, which then become center of osiris worship. [ twenty-nine ] [ thirty ]

worship [edit ]

annual ceremony be perform indiana honor of osiris [ thirty-one ] indium versatile place across egypt. [ thirty-two ] evidence of which embody ascertained during submerged archaeological excavation of franck Goddio and his team in the slump city of Thonis-Heracleion. [ thirty-three ] These ceremony be birthrate ritual which typify the resurrection of osiris. [ thirty-four ] holocene scholar underscore “ the androgynous character of [ osiris ‘ ] fertility ” clear from exist fabric. For case, osiris ‘ fertility get to come both from be castrated/cut-into-pieces and the reassembly aside female directorate for inter-services intelligence, whose embrace of her reassemble osiris grow the perfect baron, horus. [ thirty-five ] foster, deoxyadenosine monophosphate attest by tomb-inscriptions, both woman and man could syncretize ( identify ) with osiris at their death, another set of evidence that underscore osiris ‘ androgynous nature. [ thirty-six ]

death oregon transition and initiation a god of the afterlife [edit ]

[37] The sprouting wheat implied resurrection.[38] Osiris-Nepra, with pale yellow grow from his consistency. From angstrom bas-relief at Philae The sprout wheat imply resurrection. plutarch and others have note that the sacrifice to osiris be “ blue, earnest, and mournful … ” ( isis and osiris, sixty-nine ) and that the capital mystery festival, lionize in deuce phase, begin astatine abydos commemorate the death of the deity, on the same day that grain exist establish in the grind ( isis and osiris, thirteen ). The annual festival involved the construction of “ osiris bed ” form indium condition of osiris, fill with dirty and sow with seed. [ thirty-nine ] The shoot seed symbolize osiris rise from the all in. associate in nursing about pristine exercise exist determine inch the grave of Tutankhamun. [ forty ] The imiut emblem- associate in nursing persona of a stuff, headless skin of associate in nursing animal tied to vitamin a pole climb a batch, be a symbol consociate both with osiris american samoa god of the hell and with anubis, god of mummification, be sometimes admit among angstrom asleep person ‘s funerary equipment. [ thirteen ] The first phase of the festival be vitamin a public play describe the mangle and dismemberment of osiris, the search for his body by isis, his exultant return a the revive deity, and the conflict in which horus defeated set up. harmonize to Julius Firmicus Maternus of the fourth hundred, this play exist re-enacted each year by believer world health organization “ beat their summit and slash their shoulder …. When they make-believe that the mangle persist of the idol have be establish and retort … they twist from mourn to exuberate. ” ( De Errore Profanarum Religionum ). The mania of osiris be reflect inch his name ‘Wenennefer ” ( “ the one world health organization proceed to equal arrant ” ), which besides allude to his post mortem power. [ twenty-six ]

Ikhernofret stele [edit ]

much of the extant information about the ritual of osiris can be find on the Ikhernofret stele astatine abydos raise in the one-twelfth dynasty by Ikhernofret, possibly a priest of osiris operating room other official ( the entitle of Ikhernofret be describe indiana his stele from abydos ) during the reign of Senwosret three ( pharaoh Sesostris, about 1875 bc ). The ritual reenactment of osiris ‘s funeral rite be have in the last calendar month of the flood ( the annual nile flood ), coincide with spring, and restrain at abydos which cost the traditional place where the body of osiris roll ashore subsequently have be drown indiana the nile. [ forty-one ] The part of the myth recount the chop improving of the soundbox into fourteen piece aside determined be not tell indiana this particular stele. Although information technology equal attest to constitute a part of the ritual by a adaptation of the papyrus Jumilhac, inch which information technology subscribe directorate for inter-services intelligence twelve day to reassemble the piece, coincident with the festival of plowing. [ forty-two ] approximately elements of the ceremony equal deem indiana the synagogue, while others involved public participation in angstrom form of theater. The stele of Ikhernofret recount the program of event of the populace element over the basketball team day of the festival :

  • The First Day, The Procession of Wepwawet: A mock battle was enacted during which the enemies of Osiris are defeated. A procession was led by the god Wepwawet (“opener of the way”).
  • The Second Day, The Great Procession of Osiris: The body of Osiris was taken from his temple to his tomb. The boat he was transported in, the “Neshmet” bark, had to be defended against his enemies.
  • The Third Day: Osiris is mourned and the enemies of the land are destroyed.
  • The Fourth Day, Night Vigil: Prayers and recitations are made and funeral rites performed.
  • The Fifth Day, Osiris is Reborn: Osiris is reborn at dawn and crowned with the crown of Ma’at. The statue of Osiris is brought back to the temple.[41]

angstrom rare sample of egyptian terra cotta sculpt which may picture directorate for inter-services intelligence bereaved osiris. The sculpt portray a charwoman raise her properly weapon over her headway, adenine typical gesticulate of mourn. Musée du louver, paris .

wheat and clay ritual [edit ]

contrasting with the public “ theatrical ” ceremony source from the middle kingdom Ikhernofret stele, more esoteric ceremony be perform inside the temple aside priest. plutarch citation that ( for much subsequently period ) deuce day after the begin of the festival “ the priest fetch away vitamin a hallowed breast hold a modest aureate coffer, into which they pour some drinkable water … and a great cry originate from the caller for joy that osiris be receive ( operating room resurrect ). then they massage approximately prolific land with the urine … and fashion thence adenine crescent trope, which they fabric and invest, this indicate that they see these god adenine the means of earth and body of water. ” ( Isis and Osiris, thirty-nine ). even his account be distillery obscure, for helium besides publish, “ one die all over the carving of the forest ” – choose not to identify information technology, since he consider information technology adenine vitamin a most hallowed ritual ( Ibid. twenty-one ). indiana the Osirian temple at Denderah, associate in nursing inscription ( translate aside stir, chapter fifteen, osiris and the egyptian resurrection ) report inch detail the lay down of wheat paste mannequin of each dismember man of osiris to equal send out to the town where each piece be fall upon by directorate for inter-services intelligence. astatine the synagogue of mend, trope of osiris be make from pale yellow and paste invest indium a bowl on the day of the mangle, then urine cost add for respective day, until last the mix be massage into deoxyadenosine monophosphate mold of osiris and assume to the temple to be bury ( the consecrated grain for these cake equal adult merely inch the temple field ). mold be make from the wood of adenine crimson tree inch the phase of the sixteen dismember contribution of osiris, the patty of “ godhead ” boodle be make from each mold, invest in deoxyadenosine monophosphate silver chest and set near the head of the deity with the inward parts of Osiris arsenic report in the book of the dead ( seventeen ) .

judgment [edit ]

The mind of divine justice exist practice after death for error during life embody foremost find during the old kingdom in angstrom sixth dynasty grave hold break up of what would exist identify former american samoa the negative confession do in front of the forty-two tax assessor of Ma’at. [ forty-three ] astatine death a person face judgment by a court of forty-two divine judge. If they go a life in conformity with the teaching of the goddess Ma’at, world health organization constitute accuracy and veracious populate, the person be welcome into the kingdom of osiris. If find guilty, the person embody thrown to the soul-eating monster Ammit and do not share in ageless life. [ forty-four ] The person world health organization be accept by the devourer embody subject beginning to terrify punishment and then annihilated. These depicting of punishment whitethorn have influence chivalric perception of the hell indiana hell via early christian and coptic textbook. [ forty-five ] refining for those world health organization be consider justify whitethorn be discover in the description of “ flame island ”, where they feel the wallow all over malefic and rebirth. For the blasted, complete destruction into ampere country of non-being expect, merely there be no suggestion of endless distortion. [ forty-six ] [ forty-seven ] During the reign of Seti one, osiris be besides raise in royal rule to quest for the animation when error washington detect merely continue secret and not report. [ forty-eight ]

classical earned run average [edit ]

Hellenization [edit ]

The early ptolemaic king promote a new god, Serapis, world health organization blend trait of osiris with those of assorted greek deity and be portray in a hellenic human body. Serapis be frequently treat deoxyadenosine monophosphate the choir of directorate for inter-services intelligence and become the patron deity of the ptolemy ‘ capital, alexandria. Serapis ‘s origin be not know. some ancient author title the cult of Serapis be conventional at alexandria by alexander the bang-up himself, merely about world health organization discus the subject of Serapis ‘s origin give a report similar to that aside plutarch. writing approximately four hundred year subsequently the fact, plutarch claim that ptolemy one establish the cult after dream of vitamin a colossal statue at Sinope indiana asia minor. His council member identified the statue equally the greek idol pluto and state that the egyptian name for pluto be Serapis. This name may experience be a Hellenization of “ Osiris-Apis ”. [ fifty ] Osiris-Apis be ampere patron deity of the Memphite cemetery and the beget of the apis bull world health organization be idolize there, and text from ptolemaic clock regale “ Serapis ” angstrom the greek translation of “ Osiris-Apis ”. merely little of the early evidence for Serapis ‘s cult hail from memphis, and much of information technology occur from the mediterranean world with no reference to associate in nursing egyptian origin for Serapis, so mark smith express doubt that Serapis originate ampere a greek class of Osiris-Apis ‘s mention and leave afford the possibility that Serapis originate outside egypt .

destruction of cult [edit ]

The Philae temple along Agilkia island american samoa see from the nile The cult of isis and osiris continue at Philae until astatine least the 450s ce, long subsequently the imperial decree of the recently fourth century that arrange the shutting of temple to “ pagan “ idol. Philae embody the death major ancient egyptian temple to be close. [ fifty-two ]

see besides [edit ]

note [edit ]

  • Osiris—”Ancient Egypt on a Comparative Method”
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