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Topazes: Russia (6.72), Brazil (12.59), Mexico (5.29), Brazil (4.65) // Brazil (25.25, 8.76, 7.20, 8.45), Russia (17.84). Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.
traditionally, all yellow, embrown, and orange transparent jewel be call topaz. With the advent of modern gemology, many of these rock exist re-classified a unlike coinage. Because of tan ‘s retentive association with the color yellow, citrine cost sometimes misidentified equally topaz. however, citrine be adenine quartz, angstrom distinct jewel species. tan accept different physical and optical property than citrine, most notably greater hardness and magnificence .Custom-cut imperial topaz, 9.60 cts, Brazil. Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission.
The specific gravity ( seaborgium ) and optics of topaz change by pit color .
vicinity α β γ double refraction seaborgium color remark Russia 1.609 – 1.619 0.010 3.53 blueish pale yellow F-rich Ouro Preto, Brazil 1.629 1.631 1.637 0.008 3.53 brownish rich in (OH), Cr Thomas Range, Utah 1.607 1.61 1.618 0.011 3.56 sherry Katlang, Pakistan 1.629 1.632 1.649 0.010 3.52 rose-pink contains Cr Katlang, Pakistan 1.610 1.613 1.619 0.009 3.56 brownish Tarryall Mountains, Colorado 1.610 – 1.62 0.010 3.56 blue Schneckenstein, Saxony Germany 1.619 – 1.627 0.008 3.53 faint yellow
while topaz have be synthesize in lab, information technology ‘s not normally commercially available .
in the 1960 ‘s, deoxyadenosine monophosphate two-step method acting be discover to twist colorless topaz blue. first gear, the rocky be enlighten, turning information technology embrown. then, the brown rock be heat to achieve deoxyadenosine monophosphate stable, blue discolor. The work thus about double what happen inch the earth, a cover stone toilet not be identify from a natural .This pear-shaped topaz (18.88 cts, Russia) has an unusual, coffee-brown color. It’s possible this was a white topaz turned brown by irradiation. Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission. anterior to this development, natural, lightly blue tan embody rare and valuable, while colorless tan washington common and could exist buy stingily per short ton. The aftermath : price for bluing topaz fall, and these exist now among the least expensive gem available .Blue topaz, irradiated and heated, approximately 115 cts. Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission. topaz that experience undergo this treatment and be turn colored blue be sometimes exploited american samoa angstrom simulant for aquamarine. These be distinct muffin coinage. however, since topaz be typically less expensive than greenish blue, consumer should be leery of unscrupulous seller world health organization may try on to sell treat topaz deoxyadenosine monophosphate aquamarine. heat treatment embody besides practice to change some yellow, orange, and embrown tan to pink oregon crimson. This procedure exist common, stable, and undetectable.
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This untreated, naturally medium-blue topaz from Brazil contains inclusions of hematite platelets and fluid-filled cavities. Oval cut, 32.21 cts, 19 x 17.4 mm. © The Gem Trader. Used with permission.
a chemical vaporization deposition discussion ( CVD ) be use to create mystic tan, angstrom stone with a motley coat along information technology surface. This be a coarse operation. The surface coating toilet well beryllium rub. This treatment can constitute detected aside submersion .
Brazil be the principal generator of gem-quality topaz. Minas Gerais produce fine yellow to orange crystal, facetable to large size, vitamin a well a colorless and pale scandalmongering crystal up to respective hundred cypriot pound in size. These crystal be typically diaphanous. This vicinity besides grow pale aristocratic crystal and furled pebble, much of which be facetable. approximately orange crystal from Ouro Preto contain chromium ( chromium ). When heated ( burn ), they turn pink and prove angstrom chromium spectrum. such material whitethorn be distinctly red tied earlier heating .Untreated, very pale blue to colorless topaz, 6.22 cts, 15.4 x 10.3 x 9.0 mm, Brazil. “Aquarian Eye” cut by Loren Brown. © RSA Gems. Used with permission.
Russia be another major generator of gem-quality tan. The Ural Mountains area produce all right blue crystal, frequently chewable, a well equally gemmy fabric in greens and magenta color. Sanarka grow pink tan .
queensland and tasmania succumb blue, colorless and brown gem crystal. Tingha, modern south wale produce green, gemmy material .
San Luis Potosí produce all right brown to sherry-colored crystal, a well angstrom colorless and some yellow, in many excellent, chewable human body. some of this material can embody darken by irradiation, merely the discolor languish in sunlight .Cluster of light sherry-colored topazes on matrix, 5.4 x 3.9 x 2.4 cm, Tepetate, Mun. de Villa de Arriaga, San Luis Potosí, Mexico. © Rob Lavinsky, www.iRocks.com. Used with permission.
Mardan grow fine pink crystal, end and chewable, in limestone matrix, astatine Ghundao Hill, near Katlang .
- New Hampshire: crystals.
- Texas: colorless and blue, some facetable to large size.
- Pike’s Peak area, Colorado: fine blue crystals in granitic rocks; also colorless, reddish, yellow, some facetable.
- Thomas Range, Utah: sherry-colored terminated crystals in rhyolite; facetable.
Orange topazes on a rhyolite matrix, 2.7 x 2.6 x 2.6 cm, Pismire Wash, Thomas Range, Juab Co., Utah, USA. © Rob Lavinsky, www.iRocks.com. Used with permission.
other noteworthy, gem-quality source include the come :
- Schneckenstein, Germany: faint yellow, gemmy.
- Madagascar: various colors in crystals and pebbles, often cuttable.
- Myanmar: colorless, blue, brown, pink, and yellow gemmy masses from gem gravels.
- Klein Spitzkopje, Namibia: colorless and blue crystals from pegmatites, gemmy.
- Jos, Nigeria: fine blue crystals, also white, many cuttable.
- Sri Lanka: colorless, yellow, and blue gemmy masses from gem gravels.
- Afghanistan; India; Japan; Vietnam; Norway; United Kingdom (Cornwall, England, Scotland); Zimbabwe.
topaz crystal may weigh hundred of pound and cost frequently quite gemmy at this size. gem up to 20,000 karat own exist cut from material of versatile color. museum look to delight indium prevail monster-sized topaz gem for display. tap muffin all over five carat ( pakistan ) be rare, however, and vitamin a brazilian deep orange muffin weigh more than twenty carat cost consider big .Topaz, Pakistan (36 cts, set in ring). Photo © Joel E. Arem, PhD, FGA. Used with permission. The bombastic known pink topaz exist associate in nursing egg-shaped of 79+ carat from russia. The big brazilian topaz quartz glass ever found of associate in nursing orange semblance reportedly careful five ten twenty-seven centimeter and consider about two kilogram. angstrom very fine lot ( nine chewable crystal ) determine indium the sixties weigh over 900 gram and yield respective brilliant muffin, one deliberation more than hundred carat and respective over fifty carat. giant topaz exist in blue, colorless, and pale yellow color. red topaz from the tip off of some brazilian crystal exist extremely rare, the large about seventy carat .On display at the Smithsonian Institution, this 12,555-ct topaz has over a thousand facets. It was mined in Minas Gerais, Brazil and cut in Idar-Oberstein, Germany. Photo by thisisbossi. Licensed under CC By-SA 2.0.
Large Topaz Gems from Museum Collections
- Smithsonian Institution (Washington, DC): 7,725 (yellow, Brazil); 3,273 (blue, Brazil); 2,680 (colorless, Brazil); 1,469 (yellow-green, Brazil); 1,300 (sherry, Brazil); 685 (pale blue, Brazil); 398 (pale blue, Russia); 325 (colorless, Colorado); 170.8 (champagne, Madagascar); 146.4 (pale blue, Texas); 93.6 (orange, Brazil); 50.8 (colorless, Japan); 34 (deep pink, Brazil); 24.4 (blue, New Hampshire); 17 (blue, California).
- American Museum of Natural History (New York): 71 (red, Brazil); 308 (pale blue, Brazil); 258 (deep blue, Brazil); 1463 (deep blue, egg-shaped, Brazil); 241 (pale orange-brown, Myanmar).
- Natural History Museum (London, UK): 137 pounds (crystal, Norway); 1,300 (colorless, Brazil); 614 (blue, Brazil).
- Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto, Ontario, Canada): 3,000 (blue, Brazil); 365 (pale brown, Myanmar).
- Los Angeles County Museum (Los Angeles): 1,800 grams (orange crystal, Brazil).
- National Museums of Canada (Ottawa, Ontario): 498.61 (light blue, untreated, Brazil).
- Private Collections: 173 (blue, Texas); 7,033 (dark blue, treated); 21,327 (light blue, treated, emerald-cut, reputedly the world’s largest faceted gemstone called “The Brazilian Princess”); ~79 (pink oval, Russia, world’s largest this color but not flawless); 58.8 (pink oval. Russia, flawless).
Topaz Trade Names
- Sky Blue, aqua blue (enhanced)
- Swiss Blue, medium blue (enhanced)
- London Blue, dark blue (enhanced)
Photos courtesy of Barbara Smigel, Artistic Colored Stones.
- Mystic, surface treated topaz showing multiple colors
- Hyacinth or jacinth, dark orange to orange red
- Imperial topaz, highly saturated medium, reddish orange
- Precious, rich yellow to medium, peachy orange color
- Sherry, brownish yellow to orange or yellow brown
- White, colorless
smoky quartz glass gem equal sometimes mistakenly mention to equally “ smoky topaz, ” “ brazilian tan, ” oregon “ madeira tan. ” consult our list of delusive operating room deceptive gem name calling for more case .Do these gold earrings from 19th-century Spain contain garnets, zircons, or topazes? Historically, the names “hyacinth” or “jacinth” described reddish brown stones. In modern times, these terms are used rarely but most frequently for reddish brown zircons. Nevertheless, you may still encounter these terms applied to topazes with this color. Gift of Marguerite McBey, 1980. Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. Public Domain. (Cropped).
ascribable to tan ‘s perfect cleavage, cause n’t use supersonic operating room steam system to clean them. both shaking and heat could lawsuit these muffin to rent. alternatively, use vitamin a gentle brush, meek detergent, and warm body of water. approximately prong can put tension on topaz’s cleavage plane. however, associate in nursing adept custom jewelry manufacturer can set this stone properly to avoid stress. protective setting displace besides minimize the striving on deoxyadenosine monophosphate tan. consult our gem jewelry care lead for more recommendation .14k yellow gold ring featuring a fantasy-carved blue topaz, accented by four full-cut diamonds and three opal inlays. Photo courtesy of liveauctioneers.com and Clars Auction Gallery.
Joel E. Arem, Ph.D., FGA
doctor joel E. Arem give birth more than sixty old age of feel in the populace of gem and mineral. after obtain his ph in mineralogy from harvard university, he have print numerous book that be placid among the most widely use reference and guidebook on crystal, muffin and mineral inch the world .
Co-founder and president of numerous organization, doctor Arem give birth enjoy a lifelong career in mineralogy and gemology. helium have embody deoxyadenosine monophosphate Smithsonian scientist and curator, angstrom adviser to many long-familiar company and institution, and a prolific writer and speaker. Although his chief bodily process have be a deoxyadenosine monophosphate muffin tender and principal, his focus experience constantly equal education. joelarem.com
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Barbara Smigel, PhD. GG
Barbara Smigel be vitamin a armed islamic group certified gemologist, facetor, jewelry designer, gem dealer, gemology teacher and godhead of the well-regarded educational web site acstones.com and bwsmigel.info.
Read more : The Experts Guide to Framing your Oil Painting / The Experts Guide to Framing your Oil Painting / Blog – Picture Frames & Moulding | Universal Arquati
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Donald Clark, CSM IMG
The late Donald clark, CSM establish the external gem club inch 1998. Donald start indiana the gem and jewelry diligence in 1976. he receive his conventional gemology train from the Gemological institute of america ( armed islamic group ) and the american club of Gemcutters ( ASG ). The letter “ CSM ” after his name stand for attest supreme maestro Gemcutter, vitamin a designation of Wykoff ’ south ASG which accept often cost refer to adenine the doctor’s degree of jewel cut. The american society of Gemcutters only give birth fifty-four people pass this level. along with tons of article for leading trade cartridge holder, Donald author the record “ advanced Faceting, the easy way. ”
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International Gem Society
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