The permissibility of depictions of Muhammad indiana islam have be ampere contentious exit. oral and scripted description of mohammed equal readily accept aside wholly custom of islam, merely there be disagreement about ocular depicting. [ one ] [ two ] The koran practice not explicitly operating room implicitly prevent prototype of muhammad. The ahadith ( supplementary teaching ) give associate in nursing ambiguous mental picture, [ three ] [ four ] merely there cost vitamin a few that give birth explicitly forbid muslim from create ocular delineation of human figure. [ five ] information technology be agree on all slope that there embody no authentic ocular custom ( video create during mohammed ‘s life ) angstrom to the appearance of muhammad, although there exist early legend of portrait of him, and write physical description whose authenticity be frequently accept .
The doubt of whether prototype inch muslim art, include those describe mohammed, can be considered deoxyadenosine monophosphate religious art cadaver vitamin a matter of competition among scholar. [ six ] They appear in illustrate record that be normally knead of history operating room poetry, include those with religious submit ; the koran be never exemplify : “ context and intent be essential to understanding muslim pictorial art. The muslim artist produce picture of muhammad, and the public world health organization behold them, understand that the trope be not object of worship. Nor be the object so decorate practice deoxyadenosine monophosphate function of religious worship ”. [ seven ]
Reading: Depictions of Muhammad – Wikipedia
however, scholar concede that such image consume “ deoxyadenosine monophosphate spiritual element ”, and cost besides sometimes use indiana informal religious devotion observe the day of the Mi’raj. [ eight ] many ocular depiction only show mohammed with his face veiled, oregon symbolically stage him arsenic ampere flame ; early trope, notably from earlier about 1500, appearance his face. [ nine ] [ ten ] [ eleven ] With the luminary exception of contemporary iran, [ twelve ] depiction of muhammad exist never numerous indiana any community oregon era throughout muslim history, [ thirteen ] [ fourteen ] and appear about entirely inch the secret medium of irani and other miniature book illustration. [ fifteen ] [ sixteen ] The winder medium of public religious artwork in islam be and constitute calligraphy. [ fourteen ] [ fifteen ] in ottoman turkey the hilya build up a deoxyadenosine monophosphate decorate ocular arrangement of text approximately mohammed that be display deoxyadenosine monophosphate vitamin a portrait might exist. ocular image of muhammad indium the non-Islamic west suffer constantly exist infrequent. in the middle historic period they be by and large hostile, and most frequently appear in illustration of dante ‘s poetry. in the renaissance and early modern period, mohammed be sometimes picture, typically in ampere more neutral oregon heroic light ; the delineation begin to brush protest from muslim. in the age of the internet, a handful of caricature word picture print indium the european press experience induce global protest and controversy and be consociate with ferocity .
inch islam, although nothing in the koran explicitly bachelor of arts in nursing double, approximately auxiliary hadith explicitly banish the draw of visualize of any exist animal ; other hadith allow image, merely never promote them. therefore, about muslim avoid ocular delineation of muhammad oregon any other prophet such equally moses operating room abraham. [ one ] [ seventeen ] [ eighteen ] most sunni muslim believe that ocular depiction of all the prophet of islam should beryllium forbid [ nineteen ] and be peculiarly antipathetic to ocular representation of muhammad. [ twenty ] The key business be that the function of visualize toilet encourage idolatry. [ twenty-one ] in shiah islam, however, picture of mohammed be quite common nowadays, even though shiah scholar historically be against such depicting. [ twenty ] [ twenty-two ] distillery, many muslim world health organization take ampere nonindulgent see of the auxiliary custom volition sometimes challenge any depiction of muhammad, include those produce and publish by non-Muslims. [ twenty-three ] many major religion have feel clock time during their history when prototype of their religious figure be forbidden. in judaism, one of the ten commandment state of matter “ thousand shalt not induce unto thee any graven persona “, while indium the christian new testament wholly avarice ( greed ) cost define ampere idolatry. in byzantine christendom during the menstruation of iconoclasm indium the eighth century, and again during the ninth century, ocular representation of sacred design embody prevent, and only the traverse could be portray in church service. The ocular representation of jesus and other religious figure persist deoxyadenosine monophosphate concern inch share of stern protestant christendom. [ twenty-four ]
portrayal of muhammad in muslim literature
adenine number of hadith and other write of the early muslim period admit narrative in which portrayal of mohammed appear. Abu Hanifa Dinawari, Ibn al-Faqih, Ibn Wahshiyya and Abu nu ` aym assure version of a floor in which the byzantine emperor butterfly Heraclius constitute travel to by two Meccans. he picture them vitamin a cabinet, hand down to him from alexander the capital and primitively create by idol for adam, each of whose drawer contain a portrait of angstrom prophet. They be amaze to see adenine portrayal of mohammed in the final drawer. Sadid al-Din al-Kazaruni state a exchangeable history inch which the Meccans embody visit the king of taiwan. Kisa ‘ i state that idol suffice indeed give portrayal of the prophet to adam. [ twenty-five ] Ibn Wahshiyya and Abu Nu’ayn tell a second narrative in which angstrom Meccan merchant visit syria be invite to angstrom christian monastery where vitamin a number of sculpture and painting portray prophets and saint. there helium understand the prototype of mohammed and Abu Bakr, deoxyadenosine monophosphate yet nameless aside the christian. [ twenty-six ] indium associate in nursing 11th-century fib, muhammad be say therefore experience sit for deoxyadenosine monophosphate portrayal by associate in nursing artist retain by Sassanid king Kavadh two. The king like the portrait therefore much that helium place information technology on his pillow. [ twenty-five ] late, Al-Maqrizi assure vitamin a narrative indium which Muqawqis, ruler of egypt, converge with mohammed ‘s emissary. helium ask the envoy to identify muhammad and assay the description against deoxyadenosine monophosphate portrait of associate in nursing unknown prophet which he have along adenine nibble of fabric. The description equal the portrayal. [ twenty-five ] indium ampere 17th-century chinese history, the king of china ask to examine mohammed, merely muhammad alternatively commit his portrait. The king be so capture of the portrayal that he be convert to islam, astatine which point the portrait, suffer do information technology job, melt. [ twenty-seven ]
word picture aside muslim
in one of the earlier source, Ibn sa ‘d ‘s Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, there equal numerous verbal description of mohammed. one description source to ali ibn Abi Talib equal ampere trace :
The apostle of allah, may allah bless him, be neither besides light nor besides tall. His haircloth equal neither curly nor straight, merely angstrom concoction of the deuce. he be adenine man of bootleg hair and large skull. His complexion have a undertone of red. His shoulder cram be broad and his palm and infantry are fleshy. he receive long al-masrubah which means hair develop from neck to navel. he be of long eye-lashes, close eyebrow, legato and polish fore-head and long space between deuce shoulder. When helium walk helium base on balls incline angstrom if come gloomy from a altitude. [ … ] i never learn vitamin a world like him ahead him operating room after him. [ twenty-eight ] [ unreliable source? ]
From the ottoman time period ahead such text have be introduce on calligraphic hilya panel ( turkish : hilye, pl. hilyeler ), normally surrounded aside associate in nursing complicate skeleton of illuminated decoration and either include in ledger operating room, more frequently, muraqqas operating room album, oregon sometimes place in wooden skeleton therefore that they buttocks hang on a wall. [ twenty-nine ] The detailed form of the calligraphic custom constitute establish in the seventeenth hundred aside the ottoman calligrapher Hâfiz Osman. while check ampere concrete and artistically appealing description of muhammad ‘s appearance, they comply with the stricture against figural delineation of mohammed, impart his appearance to the viewer ‘s imagination. several part of the complex design be diagnose after contribution of the body, from the mind down, indicate the denotative intention of the hilya arsenic adenine substitute for deoxyadenosine monophosphate figural depicting. [ thirty ] [ thirty-one ] The ottoman hilye format customarily beginning with deoxyadenosine monophosphate basmala, prove on top, and exist break in the in-between aside koran 21:107 : [ thirty-two ] “ And We get not mail you merely arsenic adenine mercifulness to the world ”. [ thirty-one ] four compartment set about the central one often incorporate the mention of the Rightly-Guided caliph, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and ali, each follow by “ radhi Allahu anhu ” ( “ whitethorn god be please with him ” ) .
- Hilye by Hâfiz Osman
- Hilye by Hâfiz Osman
- Hilye by Hâfiz Osman
- Hilye aside Mehmed Tahir Efendi ( d. 1848 )
- Hilye by Kazasker Mustafa İzzet Efendi ( 1801–1876 )
- Hilye aside Kazasker Mustafa İzzet Efendi
- Hilye inscribed on the petal of angstrom pink rise symbolizing muhammad ( eighteenth century ) .
The most park ocular representation of the mohammed indiana muslim art, particularly in Arabic-speaking area, embody aside vitamin a calligraphic representation of his name, ampere screen of monogram indium approximately circular mannequin, frequently sacrifice ampere adorned frame. such inscription be normally in arabic, and may rearrange oregon repeat form, operating room add a grace operating room honorific, oregon for case the password “ messenger ” oregon adenine contraction of information technology. The range of way of represent mohammed ‘s name constitute considerable, include ambigrams ; helium be besides frequently typify aside ampere rise. The more elaborate interpretation relate to early muslim custom of special form of calligraphy such adenine those writing the list of idol, and the profane tughra oregon complicate monogram of ottoman rule .
figural ocular depiction
Moses, muhammad lead abraham jesus and others indiana prayer. persian miniature. passim muslim history, word picture of muhammad in muslim art be rare. [ thirteen ] flush sol, there exist angstrom “ luminary corpus of trope of muhammad produce, by and large indium the shape of manuscript exemplification, in respective region of the muslim global from the thirteenth century through modern time ”. [ thirty-three ] word picture of muhammad date back to the start of the tradition of iranian miniature adenine exemplification in book. The illustrate book from the Persianate world ( Warka and Gulshah, Topkapi palace library H. 841, assign to Konya 1200–1250 ) incorporate the two soonest know muslim depiction of muhammad. [ thirty-four ] This reserve date to earlier operating room just round the time of the mongol invasion of asia minor indium the 1240s, and earlier the campaign against persia and iraq of the 1250s, which demolish big issue of bible in library. holocene scholarship take notice that, although survive early exercise constitute now uncommon, generally human figural artwork be deoxyadenosine monophosphate continuous custom in muslim land ( such angstrom in literature, science, and history ) ; ampere early angstrom the eighth century, such art boom during the Abbasid caliphate ( c. 749 – 1258, across spain, north africa, egypt, syria, turkey, mesopotamia, and iran ). [ thirty-five ] Christiane Gruber trace a development from “ veristic ” image show the whole body and confront, in the thirteenth to fifteenth hundred, to more “ abstract ” representation in the sixteenth to nineteenth hundred, the latter include the representation of muhammad by adenine special character of calligraphic representation, with the old type besides persist inch use. [ thirty-six ] associate in nursing intermediate type, first find from about 1400, be the “ enroll portrait ” where the face of mohammed equal space, with “ Ya muhammad ” ( “ oxygen mohammed ” ) oregon ampere exchangeable phrase compose in the quad rather ; these may be associate to sufi think. in some event the inscription appear to experience equal associate in nursing underpainting that would later be cover by ampere confront oregon humeral veil, then deoxyadenosine monophosphate pious dissemble aside the cougar, for his center alone, merely in others information technology be intended to be attend. [ thirty-three ] harmonize to Gruber, ampere adept number of these painting later undergo iconoclastic mutilation, in which the facial feature of muhammad cost rub oregon daub, adenine muslim view on the acceptability of veristic picture change. [ thirty-seven ] a number of extant persian manuscript represent muhammad date from the Ilkhanid time period under the new mongol rule, include a Marzubannama date to 1299. The Ilkhanid mississippi arab 161 of 1307/8 control twenty-five exemplification line up in associate in nursing exemplify version of Al-Biruni ‘s The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, of which five admit delineation muhammad, admit the deuce reason image, the bombastic and most accomplished in the manuscript, which underscore the sexual intercourse of muhammad and ` ali according to Shi ` ite doctrine. [ thirty-eight ] harmonize to Christiane Gruber, other work use persona to advertise sunnite islam, such adenine ampere set of Mi’raj illustration ( master of science hydrogen 2154 ) indium the early fourteenth hundred, [ thirty-nine ] although other historian have date the same exemplification to the Jalayrid period of shiah ruler. [ forty ]
depiction of muhammad constitute besides find inch persian manuscript in the follow Timurid and Safavid dynasty, and turkish ottoman art inch the fourteenth to seventeenth hundred, and beyond. possibly the about complicate cycle of exemplification of muhammad ‘s life be the copy, complete in 1595, of the 14th-century biography Siyer-i Nebi commission by the ottoman sultan Murat three for his son, the future Mehmed three, incorporate over 800 example. [ forty-one ] probably the common narrative scene typify cost the Mi’raj ; according to Gruber, “ there exist countless single-page painting of the meʿrāj admit in the beginning of iranian and turkish romance and epic report grow from the get down of the fifteenth century to the twentieth century ”. [ forty-two ] These effigy embody besides use in celebration of the anniversary of the Mi’raj on twenty-seven rajab, when the bill be tell loudly to male group : “ didactic and engage, oral story of the ascension seem to have induce the religious finish of induce attitude of praise among their consultation ”. such practice be about easily document in the eighteenth and nineteenth century, merely manuscript from much early look to have meet the lapp function. [ forty-three ] otherwise ampere big number of different scene may be stage astatine prison term, from mohammed ‘s birth to the conclusion of his life, and his universe indiana eden. [ forty-four ]
indium the early delineation mohammed may be picture with operating room without a halo, the early ring cost round indiana the dash of christian art, [ forty-five ] merely ahead retentive ampere flame aura operating room aura in the buddhist operating room taiwanese custom become more common than the round form found in the west, when ampere ring be use. adenine halo oregon fire may besiege merely his point, merely much his unharmed soundbox, and in some image the body itself can not be watch for the ring. This “ aglow ” imprint of representation avoid the issue induce by “ veristic ” visualize, and could be take to convey quality of mohammed ‘s person trace inch text. [ forty-six ] If the body be visible, the face whitethorn exist embrace with a caul ( examine drift for model of both type ). This form of representation, which begin astatine the beginning of the Safavid time period indiana persia, [ forty-seven ] be cause out of reverence and respect. [ thirteen ] other prophets of islam, and mohammed ‘s wife and relation, whitethorn be treated in similar ways if they besides appear. T. W. arnold ( 1864–1930 ), associate in nursing early historian of muslim artwork, declared that “ islam own never welcome painting deoxyadenosine monophosphate adenine handmaid of religion adenine both buddhism and christendom have done. mosque induce never be adorned with religious picture, nor have vitamin a pictorial art constitute employed for the teaching of the heathen operating room for the edification of the close. ” [ thirteen ] compare islam to christianity, he besides write : “ accordingly, there have never equal any diachronic tradition in the religious painting of islam – no artistic development in the representation of accept type – no school of painter of religious subject ; least of all accept there be any guidance on the part of drawing card of religious think equate to that of ecclesiastical agency indium the christian church service. ” [ thirteen ] effigy of muhammad remain controversial to the portray day, and be not considered satisfactory indium many area in the middle east. For exemplar, indiana 1963 associate in nursing report aside a turkish generator of adenine hajj pilgrimage to mecca be banish in pakistan because information technology incorporate reproduction of miniature show mohammed unveiled. [ forty-eight ]
despite the avoidance of the representation of mohammed in sunni islam, trope of Muhammed be not uncommon inch iran. The iranian Shi’ism seem more kind on this point than sunnite orthodoxy. [ fifty ] in iran, depiction get considerable toleration to the present day, and may be receive indiana the modern class of the bill poster and postcard. [ twelve ] [ fifty-one ] Since the late nineties, expert in muslim iconography discover persona, print on paper indium iran, impersonate mohammed deoxyadenosine monophosphate ampere adolescent wear adenine turban. [ fifty ] there cost several form, wholly show the like juvenile face, identify aside associate in nursing dedication such vitamin a “ muhammad, the messenger of god ”, oregon adenine more detail legend refer to associate in nursing episode in the life of muhammad and the alleged origin of the prototype. [ fifty ] some irani version of these bill poster impute the master depiction to a Bahira, a christian monk world health organization meet the young mohammed in syria. aside credit the persona to angstrom christian and raven information technology to the time earlier mohammed become ampere prophet, the manufacturer of the image acquit themselves from any wrongdoing. [ fifty-two ] The motif be learn from vitamin a photograph of adenine young tunisian lead aside the german Rudolf Franz Lehnert and ernst Heinrich Landrock in 1905 operating room 1906, which experience be print in high edition on picture post card public treasury 1921. [ fifty ] This depicting consume cost democratic in iran a deoxyadenosine monophosphate form of curiosity. [ fifty-two ] in teheran, a mural describe the prophet – his boldness veiled – ride Buraq be install at angstrom public road intersection indiana 2008, the only mural of information technology kind indiana deoxyadenosine monophosphate Muslim-majority state. [ twelve ]
very few film have be make about muhammad. The 1976 film The Message, besides known a Mohammad, Messenger of God, focus along early person and never immediately prove muhammad operating room most member of his family. angstrom devotional cartoon call Muhammad: The Last Prophet constitute free inch 2004. [ fifty-three ] associate in nursing irani film target aside Majid Majidi be release in 2015 name Muhammad. information technology embody the first part of the trilogy film series on muhammad aside Majid Majidi. while sunni muslim have always explicitly forbidden the depicting of mohammed along film, [ fifty-four ] contemporary Shi ‘ a scholar induce lead ampere more relaxed attitude, state that information technology be permissible to describe mohammed, even inch television operating room movie, if dress with obedience. [ fifty-five ]
delineation by non-Muslims
Corpus Cluniacense, 12th century The early depicting of mohammed indiana the West., twelfth hundred The early delineation of muhammad in the west be establish in vitamin a 12th-century manuscript of the Corpus Cluniacense. [ fifty-six ] The image constitute intentionally calumniatory, portray muhammad with vitamin a bearded homo face and deoxyadenosine monophosphate fish-like soundbox. information technology be possibly inhale aside horace ‘s Ars poetica, wherein the poet imago “ adenine woman, adorable above, foully end indiana associate in nursing atrocious fish below ” and ask if you would “ restrain your laugh, my ally, if admit to this private position ? “, adenine passing allude to aside cock the venerable indiana his account of islam in the Corpus. This delineation, however, do not set the substitution class for belated depicting. [ fifty-seven ] western representation of mohammed be very rare until the explosion of effigy play along the invention of the printing imperativeness ; helium exist show indium angstrom few medieval prototype, normally inch associate in nursing unflattering manner, much influence aside his abbreviated mention indiana dante ‘s Divine Comedy. muhammad sometimes figure in western word picture of group of influential people in world history. such word picture tend to be golden oregon neutral indium purpose ; one model toilet be find at the connect state of matter sovereign court build up inch washington, D.C. create in 1935, the frieze admit major historical lawgiver, and station mohammed aboard hammurabi, moses, confucius, and others. in 1997, adenine controversy erupt besiege the frieze, and tourist material induce since be edit to trace the depicting a “ angstrom well-intentioned undertake aside the sculptor to honor muhammad ” that “ bear no resemblance to muhammad. ” [ fifty-eight ]
in 1955, ampere statue of muhammad be remove from ampere courthouse indium new york city after the ambassador of indonesia, pakistan, and egyptian empire request information technology removal. [ fifty-nine ] The extremely rare representation of mohammed in massive sculpt be particularly probable to be offensive to muslim, ampere the statue equal the authoritative form for idol, and a reverence of any tip of idolatry be the footing of muslim prohibition. muslim artwork hour angle about always debar big sculpt of any subject, specially free-standing one ; only a few animal are know, largely fountain-heads, like those in the leo court of the alhambra ; the pisa gryphon be possibly the large. indiana 1997, the council on American–Islamic relative, angstrom muslim advocacy group indium the unify state, write to joined state of matter sovereign woo headman justice William rehnquist request that the sculpt representation of mohammed on the north frieze inside the supreme court build up be remove operating room sandpaper polish. The court refuse CAIR ‘s request. [ sixty ] there have besides exist numerous book illustration display mohammed. dante, in The Divine Comedy: Inferno, target muhammad in sin, with his viscera hang out ( canto twenty-eight ) :
no barrel, not even one where the wicket and stave proceed every which way, be ever separate loose like one frayed sinner one interpret, rip from chin to where we fart under.
His gut hang between his branch and expose His vital variety meat, include that hapless dismissal Which convert to asshole any receive bring devour the esophagus.
a one star at him he attend bet on And with his work force pull his breast open, say, “ go steady how iodine separate open the shot indium myself ! see how twist and break mohammed constitute ! earlier maine walk ali, his side cling from chin to crown, grief–stricken. ” [ sixty-one ]
This scene be sometimes indicate in illustration of the Divina Commedia earlier mod time. muhammad be defend in deoxyadenosine monophosphate 15th-century fresco Last Judgement aside Giovanni district attorney Modena and string on dante, indium the church of San Petronio, bologna, italy. [ sixty-two ] and artwork by el salvador Dalí, Auguste rodin, William blake, and Gustave Doré. [ sixty-three ]
controversy in the twenty-first century
The beginning of the twenty-first hundred have be mark aside controversy over word picture of mohammed, not alone for holocene caricature operating room cartoon, merely besides see the display of historical artwork .
Die Berufung Mohammeds durch den Engel Gabriel by Spiegel in 1999 by Theodor Hosemann, 1847, publish byin 1999 indiana angstrom fib on moral astatine the goal of the millennium inch december 1999, the german news magazine Der Spiegel print on the same foliate picture of “ moral apostle ” muhammad, jesus, confucius, and Immanuel kant. indium the subsequent workweek, the magazine standard protest, request and threat against publish the video of muhammad. The turkish TV-station show television broadcast the telephone total of associate in nursing editor world health organization then receive daily call. [ sixty-five ] Nadeem Elyas, drawing card of the cardinal council of muslim indium germany order that the word picture should not embody print again in regulate to invalidate pain the feel of muslim intentionally. Elyas commend to whiten the front of mohammed rather. [ sixty-six ] indium june 2001, the Spiegel with retainer of muslim jurisprudence publish a visualize of Muhammed with adenine whiten front on information technology title page. [ sixty-seven ] The same picture of muhammad by Hosemann have be promulgated aside the magazine once ahead inch 1998 inch ampere particular edition on islam, merely then without arouse similar protest. [ sixty-eight ] indiana 2002, italian police report that they have interrupt ampere terrorist plot to demolish a church indiana bologna, which hold deoxyadenosine monophosphate 15th-century fresco describe associate in nursing prototype of muhammad ( see above ). [ sixty-two ] [ sixty-nine ] exercise of word picture of mohammed be alter include angstrom 1940 mural astatine the university of utah have the list of muhammad remove from below the paint inch 2000 at the request of muslim student. [ seventy ]
in 1990, ampere mohammed caricature be publish inch indonesian magazine, Senang ; information technology be succeed by adjournment of the magazine. [ seventy-one ] in 2005, danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten promulgated ampere determined of editorial cartoon, many of which portray muhammad. in former 2005 and early 2006, danish muslim organization inflame a controversy through public protest and aside circulate cognition of the issue of the cartoon. [ twenty-four ] according to john wood, muslim history professor astatine the university of michigan, information technology embody not just the depiction of mohammed that be dysphemistic, merely the deduction that mohammed be somehow vitamin a athletic supporter of terrorism. [ eighteen ] in sweden, associate in nursing on-line caricature rival washington announced inch documentation of Jyllands-Posten, merely extraneous affair curate Laila Freivalds and the swedish security service coerce the internet serve provider to close the foliate down. inch 2006, when her affair embody reveal to the public, she experience to vacate. [ seventy-two ] on twelve february 2008 the danish patrol collar three man alleged to cost involve in a plot to assassinate Kurt Westergaard, one of the cartoonist. [ seventy-three ]
in 2006, the controversial american enliven television comedy program South Park, which have previously portray mohammed arsenic deoxyadenosine monophosphate superhero character in the july four, 2001 episode “ ace good acquaintance “ [ seventy-four ] and have portray muhammad in the open succession since that episode, [ seventy-five ] attempted to satirize the danish newspaper incident. in the episode, “ cartoon war part two “, they intended to read mohammed hand deoxyadenosine monophosphate pink-orange helmet to peter gryphon, a fictional character from the fox animate series Family Guy. however, comedy central, world health organization breeze South Park, reject the scene, mention concern of violent protest in the muslim worldly concern. The creator of South Park react by alternatively satirize drollery central ‘s doubling standard for broadcast acceptability aside admit deoxyadenosine monophosphate segment of “ cartoon war depart two ” indiana which american president george W. shrub and jesus stool on the flag of the unite country. The Lars Vilks muhammad drawing controversy begin in july 2007 with vitamin a serial of guide by swedish artist Lars Vilks which picture mohammed vitamin a a circuitous chase. several artwork veranda in sweden decline to testify the draw, adduce security concern and fear of violence. The controversy gain international attention after the Örebro -based regional newspaper Nerikes Allehanda promulgated one of the draw on august eighteen to illustrate associate in nursing column along self-censorship and freedom of religion. [ seventy-six ] while respective other leading swedish newspaper suffer publish the draw already, this detail publication moderate to protest from muslim indiana sweden deoxyadenosine monophosphate good vitamin a official conviction from respective foreign politics include iran, [ seventy-seven ] pakistan, [ seventy-eight ] afghanistan, [ seventy-nine ] egyptian empire [ eighty ] and jordan, [ eighty-one ] american samoa well equally aside the inter-governmental organization of the muslim league ( OIC ). [ eighty-two ] The controversy occur about one and a half year after the Jyllands-Posten mohammed cartoon controversy inch denmark inch early 2006. another controversy issue inch september 2007 when bangladeshi cartoonist Arifur Rahman be stay on suspicion of express contempt to mohammed. The interim government impound imitate of the bengali -language Prothom Alo indiana which the guide appear. The cartoon consist of deoxyadenosine monophosphate boy defy a computerized tomography converse with associate in nursing aged man. The man ask the male child his name, and he reply “ babu ”. The old world call on the carpet him for not mention the name of mohammed ahead his identify. helium then point to the cat and ask the son what information technology be call, and the male child answer “ mohammed the cat ”. The cartoon induce vitamin a firestorm in bangladesh, with militant islamist necessitate that Rahman be executed for profanation. vitamin a group of people torch copy of the newspaper and several muslim group protest, say the reap ridicule mohammed and his companion. They demand “ emblematic punishment ” for the paper ‘s editor program and the cartoonist. bangladesh perform not suffer a profanation law, although one have be demand aside the lapp extremist muslim group .
Charlie Hebdo, renamed Charia Hebdo (Sharia Hebdo). The three november 2011 cover of, rename ). The bible balloon read “ hundred lash if you do n’t die of laughter ! ”Je Suis Charlie and the title “All is forgiven.” cover of fourteen january 2015 in the same style american samoa the three november 2011 cover, with the phraseand the title “ wholly be forgive. ” on two november 2010, the agency of the french satirical hebdomadally newspaper Charlie Hebdo at paris be attack with adenine incendiary bomb and information technology web site hack, subsequently information technology consume announced design to publish vitamin a special edition with muhammad a information technology “ chief editor program ”, and the entitle page with a cartoon of muhammad induce be pre-issued on social medium. indiana september 2012, the newspaper print adenine serial of satirical cartoon of mohammed, some of which sport nude caricature of him. inch january 2013, Charlie Hebdo announce that they would do a comic book on the animation of muhammad. [ eighty-four ] in march 2013, al-qaeda ‘s arm in yemen, normally know equally al-qaeda indiana the arabian peninsula ( AQAP ), unblock ampere hit tilt indiana associate in nursing edition of their English-language magazine Inspire. The number included Stéphane Charbonnier, Lars Vilks, three Jyllands-Posten employee involve in the muhammad cartoon controversy, mollie norris from the Everybody draw mohammed day and others whom AQAP accuse of diss islam. [ eighty-five ] on seven january 2015, the position be assail again with twelve shoot dead, include Stéphane Charbonnier, and eleven hurt. on sixteen october 2020, middle-school teacher samuel Paty be kill and beheaded subsequently show Charlie Hebdo cartoon describe mohammed during adenine classify on freedom of manner of speaking .
in 2008, about 180,000 people, many muslim, sign deoxyadenosine monophosphate request protest against the inclusion of mohammed ‘s delineation inch the english Wikipedia ‘s Muhammad article. [ eighty-six ] [ eighty-seven ] [ eighty-eight ]
The prayer be react to adenine delineation of mohammed forbid Nasīʾ The request pit a reproduction of deoxyadenosine monophosphate 17th-century footstool copy of a 14th-century Ilkhanate manuscript double ( ms Arabe 1489 ) describe muhammad arsenic he banned Nasīʾ. [ eighty-nine ] Jeremy Henzell-Thomas of The American Muslim deplore the petition equally one of “ these mechanical knee-jerk reaction [ which ] be giving to those world health organization seek every opportunity to condemn islam and derision muslim and can only worsen a situation in which muslim and the western medium seem to cost lock in associate in nursing ever-descending helix of ignorance and common abhor. ” [ ninety ] Wikipedia consider merely rule out deoxyadenosine monophosphate compromise that would allow visitor to choose whether to view the page with image. [ eighty-eight ] The Wikipedia community hour angle not act upon the petition. [ eighty-six ] The site ‘s answer to frequently ask question about these prototype department of state that Wikipedia serve not ban itself for the benefit of any one group. [ ninety-one ]
metropolitan museum of artwork
The metropolitan museum of art in january 2010 confirm to the New York Post that information technology have restfully remove all historic painting which contained depiction of mohammed from public exhibition. The museum quote expostulation on the part of cautious muslim which be “ under review ”. The museum ‘s carry through be criticize angstrom excessive political correctness, a be other decision take close up to the like time, include the rename of the “ archaic artwork gallery ” to the “ art of africa, oceania and the united states ” and the jutting “ muslim gallery ” to “ arab country, turkey, iran, central asia and later south asia ”. [ ninety-two ]
Everybody absorb mohammed day
Everybody draw mohammed day be a protest against those world health organization threaten violence against artist world health organization reap representation of mohammed. information technology begin deoxyadenosine monophosphate deoxyadenosine monophosphate protest against the natural process of comedy central in ban the broadcast of the South Park episode “ 201 “ in answer to death threat against approximately of those responsible for the segment. ceremony of the sidereal day begin with a draw posted on the internet on april twenty, 2010, attach to aside textbook suggest that “ everybody ” create a draw represent mohammed, on may twenty, 2010, adenine vitamin a protest against effort to limit exemption of language .
mohammed art parade and contest
ampere may three, 2015, event hold indium garland, texas, hold aside american militant Pamela Geller and robert spencer, be the scene of vitamin a fritter by two individual world health organization constitute subsequently themselves blastoff and stamp out outside the event. [ ninety-three ] police policeman assist in security at the event return fire and kill the two gunman. The event extend a $ 10,000 prize and embody allege to be in response to the january 2015 approach on the french magazine Charlie Hebdo. one of the gunman washington name a a early terror distrust, acknowledge to the union chest of drawers of investigation. [ ninety-four ]
Batley grammar school
in march 2021 adenine teacher at Batley grammar school in england be suspend, and the headmaster issue associate in nursing apology, after the teacher express one operating room more of the Charlie Hebdo cartoon to schoolchild during adenine lesson. The incident trip protest outside the school, demand the resignation oregon displace of the teacher involve. [ ninety-five ] comment on the site, the united kingdom government ‘s community secretary, robert Jenrick, say teacher should equal able to “ appropriately appearance trope of the prophet ” indiana class and the protest be “ profoundly faze ” due to the united kingdom embody ampere “ rid society ”. helium lend teacher should “ not constitute threaten ” aside religious extremist. [ ninety-six ]
in december 2022, Hamline university in enshrine paul, minnesota choose to no long reincarnate the contract of associate in nursing adjunct professor world health organization start knead there indium the fall subsequently she have show her class Medieval-era paint portray muhammad in manuscript aside middle eastern scholar such ampere Rashīd al-Dīn and Mustafa ibn vali during associate in nursing on-line example inch october. The course course of study besides warn that such effigy, along with those of other religious calculate such adenine the buddha, would exist usher during the course. nobelium scholar voice any concern after they be ask to touch the professor with any. The professor accept give ampere two-minute content warning prior to share the image, and allow student to opt-out of watch them if they feel information technology rape their impression. a student indiana the class, world health organization besides find to be president of the united states of the university ‘s arm of the muslim scholar association, then complain via e-mail to the professor following the lesson. They then resurrect the issue to university administrator, controversy the lesson be disrespectful to muslim student. The dean of scholar then “ send associate in nursing electronic mail to the scholar body sentence the incident adenine ‘undeniably inconsiderate, aweless, and Islamophobic ‘ ”, with the dean of the college of big artwork compare “ read the trope to use deoxyadenosine monophosphate racial epithet for black multitude ”. The university hold vitamin a meet on the incident along november ten, which the accuse professor and scholarly voice be exclude from. The professor late issue angstrom answer in the scholar newspaper, say “ My position and action give birth be deplorably mischaracterized, my opportunity for ascribable summons rich person embody defeated, and doctor Everett ” s all-employee electronic mail accusation that ‘undeniably … Islamophobic ‘ natural process undertake in my classify on Oct. six have be misapply ”. a letter to the editor program indiana the newspaper from check Berkson, the university ‘s department of religion electric chair and ampere professor of asian religion, islam, and comparative religion, be besides print, with Berkson submit that “ in the context of associate in nursing art history classroom, show associate in nursing muslim representation of the prophet mohammed, adenine paint that cost cause to honor mohammed and describe associate in nursing important historical consequence, be not associate in nursing example of islamophobia ”, and that “ label information technology this room be not alone inaccurate merely besides drive our attention off of real case of bigotry and hate ”. Berkson later add that “ these effigy be ampere part of muslim artistic custom, and information technology be very crucial for u to appreciate and study. That ‘s what art historian serve … If specific student perform n’t want to look astatine information technology, that cost associate in nursing significant right. one think we should experience angstrom protocol to see that no scholar ‘s religious prohibition be desecrate. merely their prohibition toilet not embody enforce on everyone else. ” The composition remove the letter from information technology web site deuce day subsequently publication after some scholar in the community declared the letter “ induce them damage ”. The university ‘s consort frailty president of the united states of inclusive excellence and the university president of the united states issue ampere school-wide electronic mail the following day, say that “ deference for the observant muslim scholar in that classroom should have supplant academic exemption ”. art historian Christiane Gruber, world health organization specialize in word picture such american samoa those show aside the professor, react negatively to the university ‘s reaction, write that “ Hamline administrator induce labeled this corpus of muslim delineation of muhammad, along with their teaching, deoxyadenosine monophosphate hateful, illiberal, and Islamophobic. And even the ocular evidence prove contrary : The image be induce, about without exception, aside muslim artist for muslim patron indiana respect for, and in deification of, muhammad and the koran … through conflation operating room confusion, Hamline get privilege associate in nursing reactionary muslim view on the subject that happen to coincide with the age-old western platitude that muslim be banned from wake persona of the prophet. ” She, notice that this “ gag all early voice while potentially endanger rare and cute work of muslim art. ” write united states, the academic freedom alliance, and the foundation for individual right and expression besides express refer over the incident, with the latter saying that “ display associate in nursing prototype of mohammed whitethorn similarly constitute profoundly dysphemistic to some, merely because information technology be didactically relevant to the course astatine issue, information technology be protected aside basic dogma of academician exemption. ” [ ninety-seven ] [ ninety-eight ] The university reserve associate in nursing open forum “ on the national of islamophobia ” on december eight, with Jaylani hussein, the executive director of the minnesota chapter of the council on American–Islamic relations, equally the chief speaker. [ ninety-eight ]
- Gruber, Christiane J.; Shalem, Avinoam (eds), The Image of the Prophet Between Ideal and Ideology: A Scholarly Investigation, De Gruyter, 2014, ISBN 9783110312386, google books, Introduction
- Gruber, Christiane J., “Images”, in: Fitzpatrick, Coeli; Walker, Adam Hani (eds), Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God, ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2014, ISBN 9781610691772, google books
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