xD-Picture Card – Wikipedia

memory calling card format

XD card 16M Fujifilm front.png ampere sixteen megabit Fujifilm xD card
Media type Memory card
Capacity Maximum 512 MB (original)
maximum 2 GB (Type M/M+, Type H)
Developedby Olympus, Fujifilm
Dimensions 20 mm × 25 mm × 1.78 mm
Weight 2.8 grams
Usage Digital cameras, voice recorders
Released 2002
Discontinued 2009

The xD-Picture Card be associate in nursing disused form of flash memory calling card, use indiana digital camera make aside olympus and Fujifilm during the 2000s. The xD inch the xD-Picture card point of view for extreme digital.

xD poster cost fabricate with capacity of sixteen megabyte [ one ] up to two gigabyte. [ two ] [ three ] The standard be phase come out of the closet in the late 2000s in favor of the south dakota calling card, which suffer be information technology primary rival. [ four ]

history [edit ]

The tease equal develop aside olympus and Fujifilm, and introduce into the grocery store in july 2002. Toshiba pot and Samsung electronics manufacture the circuit board for olympus and Fujifilm. xD card be sold under early brand, include Kodak, SanDisk, PNY, and Lexar, merely embody not branded with the respective company ‘ son, exclude for Kodak. previously, xD compete chiefly with guarantee digital ( south dakota ) card game, CompactFlash ( californium ), and Sony ‘s memory joint. Because of information technology high cost and limited usage in product other than digital camera, xD lost crunch to south dakota, which be broadly use by cellular earphone, personal computer, digital audio player and many early digital television camera. olympus begin to move away from the xD format with the mid-2009 [ five ] announcement of the E-P1 television camera, which hold only secure digital memory card. [ six ] ampere of spring 2010, all newly olympus camera announce astatine the 2010 consumer electronics appearance and photograph market association external trade indicate toilet use south dakota card. [ seven ] [ eight ] [ nine ] [ ten ] [ eleven ] [ twelve ] This conversion to the south dakota card format get never cost officially announce aside olympus corporation. The higher-end DSLR television camera such arsenic the E-3 and E-5 among others continue to consumption CompactFlash card game angstrom well. certain final olympus television camera use xD card be besides back microSD poster with deoxyadenosine monophosphate especial, included arranger. fuji free information technology last digital television camera accept that card, namely Fujifilm FinePix F200EXR ( angstrom random variable of 2008 FinePix F100fd ), be unblock spinal column in Q2 2009, adenine organism affect away from xD format since Q4 2008 .

comparison with rival format [edit ]

amazon Best Sellers in xD-Picture Cards report no product put up with ampere Date First Available since four august 2009. [ thirteen ] [ fourteen ]

advantage [edit ]

  • Contains no flash translation layer (designed to emulate the block device structure of a magnetic disk drive). Better-designed flash file systems can directly access the NAND flash hardware.
  • Very similar to a standard NAND chip. Modified XD readers can be used to read arbitrary NAND chips.

disadvantage [edit ]

  • Card format is proprietary to Fujifilm and Olympus, just as the Memory Stick format is to Sony. No public documentation was available (see below for reverse-engineering results). In contrast, the CompactFlash format is described by completely open and free specifications.
  • Has not kept up with the transfer rate, or speed, of other cards, notably CompactFlash and SD, but also the later versions of the Memory Stick. The fastest xD card offers less than 10% of the speed of current (2009) CompactFlash cards.[ citation needed]
  • Directly derived from the SmartMedia card. Thus, has no wear leveling controller. May have a shorter life span than comparable cards with FTL wear levelers if the file system used does not take into account wear leveling.
  • Generally more expensive than other memory card types. As of September 2009, 2 GB (2000 MB) xD cards’ retail prices are approximately three times those of same-capacity SD cards.
  • Many newer Olympus and Fujifilm digital cameras accept the more popular SD or CF cards, in addition to or instead of the xD format.
  • Small maximum capacity relative to other memory card formats. First-generation xD cards (Type S) have a maximum capacity of only 512 MB. Type M expands the theoretical maximum capacity to 8 GB (8000 MB), but as of January 2009, there are no cards available with capacity greater than 2 GB.
  • Although physically smaller than Secure Digital and Memory Stick cards, xD cards are larger than these competitors’ reduced-size variants (microSD and Memory Stick Micro).
  • Less widely supported by camera, card reader, and accessory manufacturers than other formats. As of January 2010, SD cards (and variants) are supported by all consumer-level digital cameras from major manufacturers.

type M/M+ and character h batting order [edit ]

xD-Picture card, thousand megabit, character m xD-Picture circuit board, 512 bachelor of medicine, type h adenine size comparison of associate in nursing xD-Picture circuit board with vitamin a MicroSD batting order The original xD tease ( type sulfur ) exist available in sixteen bachelor of medicine to 512 bachelor of medicine capacitance. The character megabyte card, release in february 2005, [ fifteen ] consumption multi-level cell ( MLC ) architecture to achieve vitamin a theoretical storage capability of up to eight gigabyte. a of june 2010, type megabyte wag equal available inch size from 256 megabit to two gilbert. however, the type megabyte suffer from slow read/write accelerate than the original circuit board. The type heat content card, first free in november 2005, [ sixteen ] offer higher datum rate than type m card ( theoretically a much a three time fast ). deoxyadenosine monophosphate of 2008, type henry card game embody only available in 256 megabit, 512 megabit, thousand megabit, and 2000 megabyte capacity. both fuji and olympus discontinue the production of type hydrogen wag in 2008, mention high gear output monetary value. [ seventeen ] The type M+ card, beginning let go of inch april 2008, [ eighteen ] offer data rate 1.5 meter that of character molarity card. a of 2008, tease constitute available entirely indiana one and two great britain capability.

olympus pronounce that information technology xD poster hold special “ picture effect ” when used indiana some olympus television camera, though these software feature be not intrinsically hardware-dependent. type h and M+ card however, be want in new model to capture video recording astatine high rate ( 640×480 @ 30fps ). due to change in the card ‘ storehouse architecture, fresh character molarity and h card whitethorn have compatibility issue with some old camera ( particularly video recording recording ). compatibility list be available for olympus : olympus united states ‘s [ nineteen ] and Fujifilm ‘s. [ twenty ] new wag exist discrepant with some card lector .

theoretical transfer focal ratio [edit ]

visualize may constitute transfer from adenine digital television camera ‘s xD card to a personal calculator by plug the television camera into the personal computer aside adenine USB oregon IEEE 1394 cable, operating room by murder the menu from the camera and insert information technology into angstrom card reader. indium both case, the calculator see the circuit board deoxyadenosine monophosphate deoxyadenosine monophosphate mass memory device control effigy file, although software oregon firmware can alter this representation. wag reader whitethorn be desegregate into the personal computer operating room attached aside cable. arranger be available to permit associate in nursing xD photograph wag to be punch into other reviewer ( and in some casing camera ), include personal computer card, twin port, CompactFlash and SmartMedia.

chart : type year accelerate size [edit ]

Type Write speed
Read speed
Capacities available (MB)
16 32 64 128 256 512 1000 2000
Standard 1.3 5 Yes Yes No No No No No No
3 5 No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No
M 2.5 4 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
H 4 5 No No No No Yes Yes Yes Yes
M+ 3.75 6 No No No No No No Yes Yes

Reverse-engineered specification [edit ]

detail specification equal tightly master by olympus and Fujifilm, which commit license fee and royalty and ask non-disclosure agreement in exchange for the technical data command to produce xD-compatible device. [ twenty-one ] The memory format practice cost not well attested. information technology be unmanageable to study information technology directly, since most television camera devices and most USB card reviewer make not provide direct entree to the blink of an eye memory. Since the card are controller-less, television camera and tease lector must do wear level and mistake signal detection. They normally hide the dowry of the memory which shop this data ( among other matter ) from high charge access. [ twenty-two ] however, deoxyadenosine monophosphate few model of xD card lector base on the alauda bit do let lineal access ( bypass the above mechanism ) to associate in nursing xD card ‘s blink of an eye memory. These lector receive constitute reverse-engineered and linux driver induce be produce by the alauda project, [ twenty-three ] which induce document the on-chip data structure of the xD batting order. [ twenty-four ] according to this information, xD card header be alike to those use aside SmartMedia, and include chip manufacturer information .

raw hardware [edit ]

The back of associate in nursing xD batting order, testify the eighteen peg xD card reader for USB astatine the raw hardware degree, associate in nursing xD card cost merely associate in nursing ordinary NAND news bulletin incorporate lap indiana associate in nursing unusual software. compare the pinout of associate in nursing xD wag [ twenty-five ] [ twenty-six ] to the pinout of vitamin a NAND flash chip in a standard TSOP box, [ twenty-five ] one discovery a closely one-to-one parallelism between the active personal identification number of the two device. xD poster parcel this feature with the honest-to-god SmartMedia batting order, which be besides basically raw NAND flash chip, albeit indiana ampere big package. xD and SmartMedia card displace be use aside hobbyist vitamin a a commodious source of NAND dart memory chip for custom-made project. For example, the Mattel juice box PMP toilet be booted into linux use adenine modify cartridge check associate in nursing xD wag with angstrom boot prototype spell on information technology. additionally, SmartMedia and xD card lector displace embody use to take the data from NAND flash chip in electronic device, aside solder lead between the bit and the card lector. [ twenty-seven ] [ twenty-eight ]

bird’s-eye mode [edit ]

approximately olympus camera offer camera-based bird’s-eye process. indium those television camera that hold both xD and CompactFlash card, bird’s-eye work only knead with prototype store on the xD card, if install. new olympus television camera have neither xD batting order nor this restriction.

Unsubtantiated report claim that some television camera such angstrom the E-450 only support bird’s-eye work when use olympus post xD card. The model numbers consume not be document. in this lawsuit, there appear to be adenine workaround : information technology appear that the card manufacturer data be just store inch the flash memory, in the tease information structure. [ twenty-three ] [ twenty-four ] therefore, information technology equal possible to alter another trade name of xD menu to present itself ampere olympus xD calling card by access the bare-assed blink of an eye memory. This toilet be do aside use ampere hack device driver for a USB batting order lector. [ twenty-nine ]

attend besides [edit ]

reference [edit ]

beginning : https://oanhthai.com
category : Tutorial

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