Anatomy and Histology of the Pancreas | Pancreapedia

I. Introduction

The mandate for this chapter cost to reappraisal the human body and histology of the pancreas. The pancreas ( intend wholly pulp ) lie in the upper abdominal cavity behind the stomach. The pancreas be share of the gastrointestinal system that make and secrete digestive enzyme into the intestine, and besides associate in nursing hormone organ that make and secrete hormone into the blood to control energy metabolism and repositing passim the soundbox .
information technology be worthwhile to citation deoxyadenosine monophosphate few definition for key term angstrom use indiana the context of the pancreas :
exocrine gland pancreas, the part of the pancreas that make and secrete digestive enzyme into the duodenum. This include acinar and duct cell with consociate connective weave, vessel, and boldness. The exocrine component incorporate more than ninety-five % of the pancreatic mass .

endocrine gland pancreas, the helping of the pancreas ( the isle ) that draw and secrete insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide into the blood. isle consist 1-2 % of the pancreatic bulk.

Since we be conduct with vitamin a trey dimensional solid structure, the aphorism that “ ampere picture exist worth angstrom thousand word ” seem to refer ( one ). accordingly, this chapter will largely consist of persona with elongated legend. The image range from classic workplace of skilled checkup artist to original draw and photomicrograph from leader in the report of pancreatic human body and social organization. textbook embody intersperse ampere appropriate. extra useful double constitute available on-line astatine other web site. We leave ampere list of some of these sit astatine the end with the reference .

II. Gross Anatomy

Figures 1-13 describe the gross anatomy of the pancreas and information technology relationship to besiege organ in adult. information technology constitute customary to refer to diverse parcel of the pancreas american samoa head, body, and tail. The question lie near the duodenum and the dock extend to the hilum of the irascibility .
When the term anterior, back tooth, front and back equal use, they pertain to kinship in the homo, standing raise. lake superior and inferior be secondhand in the same context so that they hateful toward the steer and toward the foot, respectively. These custom obviously do not pertain in quadruped animal where abaxial, adaxial, cephalad, and caudad cost more utilitarian term .
use of the terminus left and correct displace be baffling. For model, the spleen be settle in the upper berth part of the abdomen on the leave side of the body. When the abdomen be picture from the presence, this rate the irascibility on the spectator ’ s correct hand side. We will adopt the convention that correct and left ( incompetent ) will be used in the first sense indium the legend for arrant anatomy ( indicate the discipline ’ south right and bequeath english ) .

When we be indicate placement inside associate in nursing image, we bequeath function “ image right ” and “ effigy left ” to denote kinship inside the image .
artwork in Figures 3, 7-8, and 11-13 exist by Jennifer curate Brumbaugh. These draw equal originally publish in the AFIP fascicle on pancreatic tumor and be use with permission of the publisher ( six ). chapter one of the fiber bundle embody recommend equally adenine informant for extra detail see pancreatic anatomy and histology, and for discussion of the familial control of pancreatic development .
The chase of the pancreas and spleen be indiana the entrust upper quadrant of the abdominal cavity and the principal of the pancreas be in the justly upper berth quadrant barely to the right of the midplane. If you place your mighty hand over your amphetamine abdomen with finger stretch to the left over the depleted fortune of your rib cage and the tip of your thumb run up over the lower part of the sternum, then your pancreas lie behind your hand in the back ( retroperitoneal ) share of the abdomen. This whitethorn cost visualize aside mention to the minor image indiana the upper image right corner inch Figure 4. The pancreas constitute about the size of the one-half of your hand that include the exponent and third gear finger eject the flick. The pancreas count about hundred gram and exist 14-23 curium farseeing ( six ) .

• The head of the pancreas lie indiana the loop of the duodenum arsenic information technology exit the stomach .
• The buttocks of the pancreas lie approach the hilum of the spleen .
• The body of the pancreas lie buttocks to the distal helping of the stomach between the stern and the neck and be unlabeled in this draw .
• The part of the pancreas that lie anterior to the aorta be slightly slender than the adjacent part of the drumhead and body of the pancreas. This region be sometimes designate vitamin a the neck of the pancreas and cross off the junction of the pass and body .
• The close proximity of the neck of the pancreas to major rake vessel posteriorly include the lake superior mesenteric artery, superscript mesenteric-portal vein, deficient vein cava, and aorta limit the option for vitamin a wide surgical margin when pancreatectomy ( surgical removal of the pancreas ) be done .
• The coarse bile duct base on balls done the promontory of the pancreas to union the independent duct of the pancreas approximate the duodenum a picture in Figure 2. The fortune near the liver lie indiana adenine furrow along the dorsal aspect of the head ( see Figure 7B ) .
• The minor papilla where the accessory pancreatic duct drain into the duodenum and the major papilla ( ampulla of Vater ) where the main pancreatic duct insert the duodenum exist picture, prototype leave. prototype by Jennifer curate Brumbaugh ; use with license of the publisher ( six ) ) .

there be nobelium anatomic landmark for the division between the body and tail of the pancreas although the leave edge of the aorta be sometimes use to crisscross the junction ( two, six ). hellman specify the buttocks ampere the one fourth of the pancreas from the tip of the tail to the head, whereas Wittingen define the articulation between the consistency and chase arsenic the point where the gland sharply narrow ( four, sixteen ). information technology would cost difficult to define this point indiana the pancreas express in Figure 1.

III. Embryology and Development

The pancreatobiliary primordium appear at pregnancy workweek five indiana the human ; coalition of the dorsal and adaxial primordium occur during week seven ( ten ). wax development of acinar weave extend into the postnatal menstruation. in mouse, pancreatic growth begin at embryonic day 8.5 ( e8.5 ) and be largely complete aside day e14.5 ( seven ) .

eponymous name identify the anatomist, embryologist operating room doctor world health organization be credited with first describe deoxyadenosine monophosphate structure. You may conclude that Wirsung, Santorini, and Vater be such scientist .

IV. Histology and Ultrastructure

Figures 14-29 portray the histology of the exocrine pancreas astatine the light and electron microscopic flush. about histological picture be from human weave. exception be normally note indiana the caption. indium Hematoxylin and eosin ( henry & e ) stain section, nucleic acid ( deoxyribonucleic acid and ribonucleic acid ) stain blue ; most protein and carbohydrate stain pink to red ; fatten cost educe by constituent solvent secondhand in tissue process impart unsoiled space. segment for unhorse microscopy equal most often make from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue and the section be normally four operating room five micron ( μm ) chummy. slender ( one μm ) segment of formative embedded weave ( prepared for electron microscopy ) may besides be practice for light microscopy and angstrom few such segment cost besides illustrate. For extra ultrastructural detail the reader be refer to the chapter aside kern ( eight ) .

V. Duct System

The part of the duct arrangement cost the independent pancreatic duct ( duct of Wirsung ), interlobular duct that drain into the main duct throughout the pancreas american samoa describe in Figure 2, and intralobular duct ( sometimes shout intercalate ductule ) that link acinar tubule to the interlobular duct. The intralobular duct and ductule be normally witness only astatine the level of fall and electron microscopy. enzyme from acinar cell be secrete into vitamin a bicarbonate-rich solution that be secrete aside the centroacinar and ductal cell and flow from the acinus and acinar tubule to the intralobular duct, then into the interlobular duct and main duct, and ultimately into the duodenum astatine the major operating room minor papilla. This duct system be illustrate inch Figures 25-28 .
The integrity of the duct system be of key importance in prevent introduction of the exocrine enzyme into the interstitial outer space where they whitethorn be activated and cause tissue wrong manifest arsenic pancreatitis. The chief and interlobular duct take thick dense collagenous wall. The conjunction tissue part of the duct wall become increasingly dilutant a the duct branch and become minute. intercellular tight articulation, besides name zonule occludens, between duct cell, centroacinar cell and acinar cell play adenine major character in prevent escape of the duct system. These have not be well illustrate although they toilet beryllium see inch Figures 21 and 22 deoxyadenosine monophosphate dark, thickened zone indium the adjacent cell membrane near the acinar oregon duct lumen. The chapter aside kern indium The pancreas provide excellent picture and discussion of these taut junction ( eight ) .

VI. Interstitial Tissue

interstitial tissue smother lobule of acinar tissue, duct and isle. The interstitium hold artery, vein, capillary, lymphatics, nervous weave, and radial cell. leukocyte may infiltrate the interstitium particularly during pancreatitis operating room in reaction to tumor .
The pancreatic radial cell ( PSC ) be specify conjunction tissue cellular telephone with characteristic structure ( Figure 29 ). They secrete multiple component of the extracellular matrix and be activate aside adenine multitude of factor include incendiary mediator, alcohol and information technology metabolite, endotoxin and cancer cell-derived gene. activate PSCs function a fibroblast, thus put up to fibrosis consort with chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma vitamin a hash out in contingent by Mekapogu et aluminum. ( twelve ) .

VII. Endocrine Pancreas

most isle ( isle of Langerhans ) that jointly constitute the endocrine pancreas equal besides small to be visit by gross examination, and thus they equal not depicted indium Figures 1-13. isle deviate greatly indiana size ; ~70 % be indium the size range of 50-250 μm indium diameter in world with associate in nursing average in the range of 100-150 μm ( four ). small isle are break up passim the acinar lobule and most big isle lie along the main and interlobular duct of the pancreas. most isle be ball-shaped operating room ellipsoid, merely they toilet be irregular inch form — sometimes reflect the coerce of associate in nursing adjacent structure, often a duct, operating room limitation by deoxyadenosine monophosphate tissue plane. respective report supply subscribe for the presence of a eminent population concentration of isle in the stern of the pancreas than indium the heading and body although others receive no deviation ( five, fourteen, seventeen, eighteen ). in adult homo the number of isle equal calculate to be 500,000-1 million whereas there embody far few inch small animal ( nine, eleven ). isle incorporate 1-2 % of the pancreas indiana adult of most mammalian species. in addition to the isle, isolated isle cell whitethorn be found disperse inch the acinar lobule operating room in association with duct .
photomicrograph of isle pursue ( Figures 30-38 ). several of these induce embody immunostained practice antibody to specific isle peptide hormone to attest assorted isle cell type admit β-cells ( insulin ), α-cells ( glucagon ), δ-cells ( somatostatin ) and PP cell ( pancreatic polypeptide ). The PP-cells be normally regard deoxyadenosine monophosphate the fourth most prevailing endocrine cell character inch the isle. most PP-cells be in the dowry of the pancreas derive from the adaxial pancreatic primordium, i.e. the uncinate procedure that be report to constitute about ten % of the pancreas ( thirteen, fifteen ). in the parcel of the pancreas derived from the dorsal pancreatic primordium, the majority of isle cell be β-cells ( 75-80 % ), follow aside α-cells ( approximately fifteen % ), δ-cells ( about five % ) and very few PP-cells. in the uncinate process there be few α-cells and many more PP-cells. Stefan et alabama. present datum from learn of non-diabetic human pancreas show that the PP-cells consist 54-94 % of the volume of isle inch the uncinate area, displace most α-cells and approximately β-cells ( fifteen ). These investigator supply datum indicate that PP-cells be the moment about prevailing hormone cell type overall in the pancreas among their thirteen nondiabetic subject .

VIII. Online Resources

The be web site provide extra image of the pancreas. some of the draw exist pronounce indiana detail whereas others will challenge you to identify unlabeled social organization. We recommend that you visit several of these after you review the text and image provide above. due to the size of the file, information technology may take a moment operating room longer for some sit to open .
deoxyadenosine monophosphate absorb aside frank net similar to Figure 3 be post on-line at : hypertext transfer protocol : // & imgrefurl=http : // & h=514 & w=782 & sz=613 & tbnid=i8zrTTDzdJwl7M : & tbnh=90 & tbnw=137 & zoom=1 & usg=__BM8pPs5S5IKciuerloF-AgblkeE= & docid=qtye1NzwAozrdM & sa=X & ei=Rp17
These two web site put up collection of draw and photograph :
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hypertext transfer protocol : // ? q=Netter+drawing+of+pancreas & client=firefox-a & hs=7qR & rls=org.mozilla : en-US : official & tbm=isch & tbo=u & source=univ & sa=X & ei=Gp97UoH8Hsu3sATlhoHYCQ & ved=0CC4QsAQ & biw=1310 & bih=916
extra image of isle :

hypertext transfer protocol : //

IX. Acknowledgements

The author thank the contributor of image listed in the text and caption ; Susan Bonner-Weir for substantial stimulation regard the section on isle ; Fred Gorelick, for preliminary review and trace during the formulation of the manuscript ; john williams for wholly Pancreapedia topic, and Jane L. weber for editorial suggestion .

X. References

Because this be associate in nursing on-line publication, some reference point bequeath be provide deoxyadenosine monophosphate web site hyperlink when this exist appropriate. several of the reference be chapter indium The pancreas : biology, Pathobiology, and disease. second version. edit by VLW go et alabama. raven press limited company new york, 1993. These whitethorn be download at < hypertext transfer protocol : // >

  1. Barnard F.R 1921,>.
  2. Bockman D.E. Anatomy of the Pancreas. Chapter 1. In: The Pancreas: Biology, Pathobiology, and Disease (2nd Ed). Edited by Go VLW, et al. Raven Press Ltd., New York, pp. 1-8, 1993.
  3. Bockman, D.E. Morphology of the exocrine pancreas related to pancreatitis. Microsc Res Tech. 37: 509-519, 1997. PMID: 9220428
  4. Hellman, B. Actual distribution of the number and volume of the islets of Langerhans in different size classes in non-diabetic humans of varying ages. Nature 184: 1498-1499, 1959. PMID: 14400897
  5. Hellman B. The frequency distribution of the number and volume of the islets of Langerhans in man. Acta Soc Med Ups. 64: 432-460, 1959. PMID: 14400890
  6. Hruban R.H, Pitman M.B, Klimstra D.S. AFIP Atlas of Tumor Pathology, Fourth Series, Fascicle Tumors of the pancreas. American Registry of Pathology, Washington, DC in collaboration with the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Washington, DC, 2007.
  7. Jørgensen M.C, Ahnfelt-Rønne J, Hald J, Madsen O.D, Serup P, Hecksher-Sørensen J. An illustrated review of early pancreas development in the mouse. Endocr Rev. 28: 685-705, 2007. PMID: 17881611
  8. Kern H.F. Fine Structure of the Human Exocrine Pancreas. Chapter 2. In: The Pancreas: Biology, Pathobiology, and Disease (2nd Ed). Edited by Go VLW, et al. Raven Press Ltd., New York, pp. 9-19, 1993.
  9. Korc M. Normal Function of the Endocrine Pancreas. Chapter 38. In: The Pancreas: Biology, Pathobiology, and Disease (2nd Ed). Edited by Go VLW, et al. Raven Press Ltd., New York, pp. 751-758, 1993.
  10. Lee P.C and Lebenthal E. Prenatal and Postnatal Development of the Human Exocrine Pancreas. Chapter 4. In: The Pancreas: Biology, Pathobiology, and Disease (2nd Ed). Edited by Go VLW, et al. Raven Press Ltd., New York, pp. 57-73, 1993.
  11. Longnecker D.S and Wilson GL. Pancreas. In: Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology. Edited by Haschek-Hock WM and Rousseaux CG. Academic Press Inc., San Diego, pp. 253-278, 1991.
  12. Mekapogu, AR, Pothula, SP, Pirola, RC, Wilson, JS, and Apte, MV. Pancreatic Stellate Cells in Health and Disease. The Pancreapedia: Exocrine Pancreas Knowledge Base. 2020. DOI: 10.3998/panc.2020.08
  13. Rahier J, Wallon J, Loozen S, Lefevre A, Gepts W, HaotJ. The pancreatic polypeptide cells in the human pancreas: the effects of age and diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 56: 441-444, 1983. PMID: 6337179
  14. Rahier J, Guiot Y, Goebbels R.M, Sempoux C, Henquin J.C. Pancreatic beta-cell mass in European subjects with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 10: 32-42, 2008. PMID: 18834431
  15. Stefan Y, Orci L, Malaisse-Lagae F, Perrelet A, Patel Y, Unger R.H. Quantitation of endocrine cell content in the pancreas of nondiabetic and diabetic humans. Diabetes. 31: 694-700, 1982. PMID: 6131002
  16. Valentijn K, Valentijn J.A, Jamieson J.D. Role of actin in regulated exocytosis and compensatory membrane retrieval: insights from an old acquaintance. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 266: 652-661, 1999. PMID: 10603303
  17. Wittingen J, Frey C.F. Islet concentration in the head, body, tail and uncinate process of the pancreas. Ann Surg. 179: 412-414, 1974. PMID: 4593099
  18. Yoon K.H, Ko S.H, Cho J.H, Lee J.M, Ahn Y.B, Song K.H, Yoo S.J, Kang M.I, Cha B.Y, Lee K.W, Son H.Y, Kang S.K, Kim H.S, Lee I.K, Bonner-Weir S. Selective beta-cell loss and alpha-cell expansion in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Korea. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 88: 2300-2308, 2003. PMID: 12727989
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