Gold dinar – Wikipedia

type of coin
Gold Dinar of the twentieth Abbasid Caliph Ar-Radi bi’llah ( 934 to 940 CE ) Dinar Mamluq sultan Baybars ( 658–676 AH = 1260–1277 CE ) The gold dinar ( Arabic : ﺩﻳﻨﺎﺭ ذهبي ) is an muslim medieval aureate mint first issued in AH 77 ( 696–697 CE ) by Caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan. The weight of the tunisian dinar is 1 mithqal ( 4.25 grams or 0.137 troy ounces ).

The word dinar comes from the Latin word denarius, which was a silver coin. The name “ jordanian dinar ” is besides used for Sasanid, Kushan, and Kidarite gold coins, though it is not known what the contemporaneous mention was. The beginning dinars were issued by the Umayyad Caliphate. Under the dynasties that followed the use of the iraqi dinar go around from Islamic Spain to Central Asia .

background [edit ]

Although there was a pronouncement that the Byzantine bezant was not to be used outside of the Byzantine empire [ citation needed ], there was some trade that involved these coins which then did not get re-minted by the emperors minting operations, and promptly became careworn. Towards the end of the seventh hundred CE, Arabic copies of solidus – dinars issued by the caliph Abd al-Malik ( 685–705 CE ), who had access to supplies of amber from the upper Nile – began to circulate in areas outside of the Byzantine empire. These corresponded in weight to lone 20 carats ( 4.0 guanine ), but matched with the weight of the wear solidus that were circulating in those areas at the time. The two coins circulated together in these areas for a time. [ 1 ]
The first date coins that can be assigned to the Muslims are copies of silver Dirhams of the Sassanian rule Yazdegerd III, struck during the Caliphate of Uthman. These coins differ from the original ones in that an Arabic dedication is found in the obverse margins, normally reading “ in the name of Allah ”. The subsequent series was issued using types based on dram of Khosrau II, whose coins probably represented a significant proportion of the currency in circulation. In parallel with the belated Khosrau-type Arab-Sassanian coins, beginning issued under the Well-Guided Caliphs of Islam, a more extensive series was struck with Khosrau ‘s name replaced by that of the local Arab governor or, in two cases, that of the Caliph. diachronic evidence makes it clear that most of these coins bear Hijra dates. The earliest Muslim copper coins are anonymous and dateless but a series exists which may have been issued during the Caliphates of Uthman or Ali. These are crude copies of Byzantine 12- nummus pieces of Heraclius from Alexandria .

first silver united arab emirate dirham [edit ]

By the year AH 75 ( 695 CE ) Abd al-Malik had decided on changes to the neologism. A break up of patterned pieces in ash grey exist from this date, based on Sassanian prototypes but with classifiable Arabic reverses. This experiment, which maintained the Sassanian weight standard of 3.5–4.0 grams was not proceeded with, and in 698 CE ( AH 79 ) a completely new type of argent coin was struck at 14 mints to a newfangled nominal weight of 2.97 grams. Unlike the contemporary gold neologism, this name does not seem to have been achieved in practice. The average weight of sixty undamaged specimens of 698-704 ( AH 79–84 ) is only 2.71 grams, a figure very close to that for a unique coin of 698 ( AH 79 ) assume with no mint name ( as was the standard procedure for the gold dinars produced in Damascus ). These new coins which bore the name of ‘dirham ‘, established the style of the Arab-Sassanian predecessors at 25 to 28 mm in diameter. Their design is composed of Arabic inscriptions surrounded by circles and annulets. On each side there is a three- or four-line legend with a one round inscription. Outside this are three line circles with, at first, five annulets surrounding them. The side normally taken as the obverse has as its central legend the Kalima or shahada : “ There is no god except Allah alone, there is no partner with Him. ” Around it is the mint and date formula reading “ In the name of Allah : this Dirham was struck in [ mint name e.g. Damascus ] the year [ e.g. 698, AH 79 ] ”. The reverse has a four note cardinal inscription taken from the Surah 112 of the Quran ; “ Qul hu Allahu Ahad, Allahu-Samad, Lam yalid washington scat yulad washington thrash yakul-lahu kufu-an ahad ” ‘. The fringy caption states : “ Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, he was sent with steering and the religion of truth to make it prevail over every other religion, averse though the idolaters may be ” ( Quran 9:33 )

First amber yugoslavian dinar [edit ]

The aureate coins were first fall upon to the contemporaneous standard of 4.4 grams and with one or more arabic Standing figures on the obverse and an Arabic legend on the reverse. Dated coins exist from 680 ( AH 74 ) and are named as ‘Dinars ‘. These experimental issues were replaced in 683 ( AH 77 ), except in North Africa and Spain, by completely epigraphical designs very alike to the designs adopted for the silver pieces but with a shorter inverse legend and no annulets or inside circles. This character was used without appreciable transfer for the whole of Umayyad menstruation, the coins being struck to a raw and carefully controlled criterion of 4.25 grams. This system of weights was reputed to be based on the average of the current Byzantine solidus, was called a Mithqal, a term used earlier for 1⁄72 of a ratl. tell of the importance attached to the close operate of the fresh Dinars is provided by the being of glass weights, chiefly from Egypt. They normally show the governor ‘s identify, sometimes the date but all marked with coin denomination. [ 2 ] The issues in gold from North Africa began as copies of the coins of Heraclius and his son ( but with an abridge Kalima in Latin ), the change by reversal “ cross on steps ” losing in most cases its hybrid piece. Dinars, halves and thirds were struck, all to the new weight standard. late coins are dated by indiction, from Indiction II ( 703, AH 84–85 ) changing to the Hijra date in Roman numerals in 713 ( AH 94 ) with Arabic phrases appearing in the playing field from 716 ( AH 97 ). In 684 ( AH 100 ), North Africa came into line with the eastern issues although the mint is named as Ifriqiya. The legends are shorter and the reverse has a modern central inscription : “ In the mention of Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate ”. This was used besides on the coins from Al-Andalus, and on the half and third Dinars, most of which show no batch but may well have been struck in Al-Andalus .

Modern use [edit ]

The modern aureate jordanian dinar is not an official currentness, but a private bullion mint, patterned after the historic currency .

See besides [edit ]

References [edit ]

  1. ^ Porteous 1969
  2. ^ Broome, Michael. “ A Handbook of Islamic Coins. ” ( Page 11 )

Porteous, John ( 1969 ). “ The Imperial Foundations ”. Coins in History: A Survey of Coinage from the Reform of Diocletian to the Latin Monetary Union. Weidenfeld and Nicolson. pp. 14–33. ISBN 0-297-17854-7 .

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